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A 2007 eruptive column at Mount Etna producing volcanic ash, pumice and lava bombs Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador, a close up aerial view of the nested summit calderas and craters, along with the crater lake as seen from a United States Air Force C-130 Hercules flying above El Salvador. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere (or troposphere); however, they also absorb heat radiated up from the Earth, thereby warming the upper atmosphere (or stratosphere). Etymology Plate tectonics Divergent plate boundaries "Hotspots"

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Christmas While the birth year of Jesus is estimated among modern historians to have been between 7 and 2 BC, the exact month and day of his birth are unknown.[18][19] His birth is mentioned in two of the four canonical gospels. By the early-to-mid 4th century, the Western Christian Church had placed Christmas on December 25,[20] a date later adopted in the East,[21][22] although some churches celebrate on the December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to January in the modern-day Gregorian calendar. The date of Christmas may have initially been chosen to correspond with the day exactly nine months after early Christians believed Jesus to have been conceived,[23] or with one or more ancient polytheistic festivals that occurred near southern solstice (i.e., the Roman winter solstice); a further solar connection has been suggested because of a biblical verse[a] identifying Jesus as the "Sun of righteousness".[23][24][25][26][27] Etymology Other names History

How to Forecast Weather Ever wondered how to forecast the weather without actually using instruments? Check the Clouds: Clouds can tell us a lot about the weather. For example, they can tell us if it’s going to be warmer on a particular night by simply being there. Fun Volcano Facts for Kids - Interesting Facts about Volcanoes Volcanoes are openings in the Earth’s surface. When they are active they can let ash, gas and hot magma escape in sometimes violent and spectacular eruptions. The word volcano originally comes from the name of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan. Volcanoes are usually located where tectonic plates meet. This is especially true for the Pacific Ring of Fire, an area around the Pacific Ocean where over 75% of the volcanoes on Earth are found. While most volcanoes form near tectonic boundaries, they can also form in areas that contain abnormally hot rock inside the Earth.

Republican Party (United States) History Founding and 19th century The first official party convention was held on July 6, 1854, in Jackson, Michigan. By 1858, the Republicans dominated nearly all Northern states. Current Seismicity The USGS Earthquake Hazards Program is part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), established by Congress in 1977. We monitor and report earthquakes, assess earthquake impacts and hazards, and research the causes and effects of earthquake. Significant Earthquakes Past 30 Days Significant Earthquake Archive Error The word error entails different meanings and usages relative to how it is conceptually applied. The concrete meaning of the Latin word "error" is "wandering" or "straying". Unlike an illusion, an error or a mistake can sometimes be dispelled through knowledge (knowing that one is looking at a mirage and not at real water does not make the mirage disappear). For example, a person who uses too much of an ingredient in a recipe and has a failed product can learn the right amount to use and avoid repeating the mistake. However, some errors can occur even when individuals have the required knowledge to perform a task correctly. Examples include forgetting to collect change after buying chocolate from a vending machine, forgetting the original document after making photocopies, and forgetting to turn the gas off after cooking a meal.

Courage Courage is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty or intimidation. Physical courage is courage in the face of physical pain, hardship, death or threat of death, while moral courage is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal or discouragement. In some traditions, fortitude holds approximately the same meaning. In the Western tradition, notable thoughts on courage have come from philosophers such as Aristotle, Aquinas and Kierkegaard; in the Eastern tradition, some thoughts on courage were offered by the Tao Te Ching. More recently, courage has been explored by the discipline of psychology. Theories of courage[edit]

The Science of Earthquakes The Science of Earthquakes From fault types to the Ring of Fire to hydraulic fracking, the Earthquakes infographic by Weather Underground helps us understand the complexities of what shakes the ground. Drought Blood Human blood fractioned by centrifugation. Plasma (upper layer), buffy coat (middle, white colored layer) and erytrocite layer (bottom) can be seen. Blood circulation: Red = oxygenated Blue = deoxygenated Human blood magnified 600 times

Newcastle City Council - Earthquake At 10.27 am on Thursday, 28 December, 1989, the City of Newcastle was devastated by a ML 5.6 (Richter magnitude) earthquake. This was one of the most serious natural disasters in Australia's history. View our photo gallery of earthquake images. Risk Risk is the potential of losing something of value, weighed against the potential to gain something of value. Values (such as physical health, social status, emotional well being or financial wealth) can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action, activity and/or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen. Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty. Risk perception is the subjective judgment people make about the severity of a risk, and may vary person to person.

Earthquake Safety Tips, Earthquake Preparation, Earthquake Readiness Earthquakes are a common occurrence, rumbling below Earth's surface thousands of times every day. But major earthquakes are less common. Here are some things to do to prepare for an earthquake and what to do once the ground starts shaking. Safety Tips Have an earthquake readiness plan.Consult a professional to learn how to make your home sturdier, such as bolting bookcases to wall studs, installing strong latches on cupboards, and strapping the water heater to wall studs.Locate a place in each room of the house that you can go to in case of an earthquake. It should be a spot where nothing is likely to fall on you.Keep a supply of canned food, an up-to-date first aid kit, 3 gallons (11.4 liters) of water per person, dust masks and goggles, and a working battery-operated radio and flashlights.Know how to turn off your gas and water mains.

Injury The knee of a patient is examined with help of radiography after an injury. An injury is damage to a biological organism caused by physical harm.[1] Major trauma is injury that can potentially lead to serious outcomes. Classification[edit]