Written in Bone - A Highly Unusual Case In 2002, archaeologists uncovered an isolated grave just outside the log wall of a fort built on an island in the James River almost four centuries earlier. Who was buried there? Male skeleton (burial partially re-created for an exhibition) 1607, James Fort site, Jamestown Virginia. Image courtesy of: APVA Preservation Virginia/Historic Jamestowne The discovery mystified investigators. Smithsonian forensic anthropologists joined archaeologists from APVA Preservation Virginia who were excavating the site where the fort once stood—the first permanent English settlement in North America. A computer-generated image of the burial, based on evidence of nails recovered from the grave. Evidence at the Scene A gabled coffin and captain’s staff placed next to it indicate that the colonists who buried this man held him in high regard. Skeletal Evidence Skeletal examination identified the remains as those of a European male, about 5 feet 3 inches tall, and 30 to 36 years old. A Probable ID
Kundalini Kundalini chakra diagram Kundalini (Sanskrit kuṇḍalinī, कुण्डलिनी, pronunciation ) stems from yogic philosophy as a form of feminine shakti or "corporeal energy". Kundalini is described within Eastern religious, or spiritual, tradition as an indwelling spiritual energy that can be awakened in order to purify the subtle system and ultimately to bestow the state of Yoga, or Divine Union, upon the 'seeker' of truth ". The Yoga Upanishads describe Kundalini as lying "coiled" at the base of the spine, represented as either a goddess or sleeping serpent waiting to be awakened. In modern commentaries, Kundalini has been called an unconscious, instinctive or libidinal force. It is reported that Kundalini awakening results in deep meditation, enlightenment and bliss. This awakening involves the Kundalini physically moving up the central channel to reside within the Sahasrara Chakra above the head. Etymology The Sanskrit adjective kuṇḍalin means "circular, annular". and
Human Intelligence: The Flynn Effect This page is now located at an updated address. Please update your bookmarks! The new address is posted below. You will be redirected to the new page in 15 seconds or you can click the link below. The Flynn Effect Originally prepared by: Charles Graham (fall 2001)Revised: Jonathan Plucker (fall 2002) The Flynn Effect deals with the issue of how the general IQ scores of a population change over time. Outline (back to top) Introduction How large are the IQ gains? Where is the IQ test data from? What are possible causes for the Flynn Effect? Why must IQ tests be constantly restandardized? Who has written about the Flynn Effect? Introduction (back to outline) In his study of IQ tests scores for different populations over the past sixty years, James R. How large are the IQ gains? Research shows that IQ gains have been mixed for different countries. Fluid Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence Where is the IQ test data from? What are possible causes for the Flynn Effect? Deary, I.
Researchers uncover 8,000 years of human history hidden in the Middle East Which would be interesting, seeing as, when interpreted literally, the Bible also claims that the universe was created between 6000-8000 years ago. Which is problematic, to say the least. EDIT: Not to mention the mental gymnastics required to reconcile the (presumably) carbon dating of the earliest Mesopotamian settlements to 8000 years ago and the fact that that same dating methods go on to describe artifacts and fossils that are up to 40 000 years old. As I recall, Asimov hypothesized that the age of creation used in the Bible is actually linked to the point at which we (or rather Near Eastern peoples) began recording history in the form of writing. Not sure how strong his evidence was but it sounds reasonable intuitively. That's always been the same assumption that I have made. Population growth: Ban homosexuality. Sanitary living conditions: Explain sources of clean water, and to cook meat, but not eat some meat. Etc.
Angel An angel (from the Greek ἄγγελος - ángelos) is a supernatural being or spirit, often depicted in humanoid form with feathered wings on their backs and halos around their heads, found in various religions and mythologies. The theological study of angels is known as "angelology". In Zoroastrianism and Abrahamic religions they are often depicted as benevolent celestial beings who act as intermediaries between Heaven and Earth, or as guardian spirits or a guiding influence. The term "angel" has also been expanded to various notions of spirits found in many other religious traditions. Other roles of angels include protecting and guiding human beings, and carrying out God's tasks. Etymology The word angel in English is a fusion of the Old English/Germanic word engel (with a hard g) and the Old French angele. Judaism The term מלאך (mal'āk̠) is also used in the Tanakh; a similar term, ملائكة (malā'ikah), is used in the Qur'an. "... Jewish angelic hierarchy
Comics & Anthropology « Public Space, Information Accessibility, Technology, and Diversity at Oslo University College This comic book, in both its form and content, breaks with the traditional way of presenting ethnography. Traditionally, anthropology has been a written enterprise. Writing is perceived as the most scientific form of representation of social life. However, other forms of representation exist—not only in other disciplines (like art) but also within anthropology and social sciences. Anthropological findings have been presented in such forms as photography, film, and material exhibitions. Anthropologists are becoming increasingly inspired to branch out from the written word and use other forms of expression to present their findings. Visual anthropology is mostly concerned with the examination and production of ethnographic film and photography in which the product shows signs of a documentary perspective and real individuals participate in those productions. This comic book is a collection of ethnographic situations. Like this: Like Loading...
Paleoanthropology Paleoanthropology (English: Palaeoanthropology; from Greek: παλαιός (palaeos) "old, ancient"), anthrōpos (ἄνθρωπος), "man", understood to mean humanity, and -logia (-λογία), "discourse" or "study"), which combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology, is the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominid evidence such as petrifacted bones and footprints. History of paleoanthropology 18th Century Since the time of Carl Linnaeus, the great apes were considered the closest relatives of human beings, based on morphological similarity. In the 19th century, it was speculated that the closest living relatives to humans were chimpanzees and gorillas, and based on the natural range of these creatures, it was surmised that humans shared a common ancestor with African apes and that fossils of these ancestors would ultimately be found in Africa. 19th century Debates between Thomas Huxley and Richard Owen focused on the idea of human evolution. Asia
Deity In religious belief, a deity ( i/ˈdiː.ɨti/ or C. Scott Littleton's Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology defined a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life." Historically, natural phenomena whose causes were not well understood, such as lightning and catastrophes such as earthquakes and floods, were attributed to them. Etymology The word "deity" derives from the Latin deus ("god"), which is related through a common Indo-European origin to Sanskrit deva ("god"), devi ("goddess"), divya ("transcendental", "spiritual"). Other words for the concept The English word "god" comes from Anglo-Saxon; similar words are found in many Germanic languages (for example, the German "Gott" — "god"). The Turkic word for god is Tengri; it exists as Tanrı in Turkish. Relation with humanity Polytheism
The mystery of the labyrinth by Mirko Elviro This symbol represents a real mystery: in fact it appears in very different places and times. Its meaning is a mystery. Some researchers believe that it is a "ritual course", confining it to the religious-mystic field. Other say it may represent a human brain. Stone track on Isle of Gotland (Sweden) Courtesy of www.geomancy.org Decoration on an Etruscan vase found in Tragliatella (Italy) Rupestrian inscription in Rocky Valley, just North of Tintagel, in Cornwall (England) Engraving on a coin of Cnosso (Isle of Creta) Holy symbol of Hopi indians (Pueblo tribe of the southwestern United States) Symbol discovered in Sibbo, Finland Symbol present in the Manas Chakra (Rajastan, India) Symbol present in the temple of Kom Ombo (Egypt) Labyrinth reported by Daniele ZeriFor further informations about this discovery, keep on reading Symbol present in the "Domus de Jana" of Luzzanas in Sardinia (Italy); it's dated about 6000 years old Labyrinth reported by Stefano F. What does it mean?
Primatology Primatology is the scientific study of primates. It is a diverse discipline and researchers can be found in academic departments of anatomy, anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, veterinary sciences and zoology, as well as in animal sanctuaries, biomedical research facilities, museums and zoos. Primatologists study both living and extinct primates in their natural habitats and in laboratories by conducting field studies and experiments in order to understand aspects of their evolution and behaviour. Primatologists often divide primates into three groups for study: dominant females, females and young, and peripheral males. Sub-disciplines As a science, primatology has many different sub-disciplines which vary in terms of theoretical and methodological approaches to the subject used in researching extant primates and their extinct ancestors. There are two main centers of primatology, Western primatology and Japanese primatology. Western primatology Origins
Paradigm shift A paradigm shift (or revolutionary science) is, according to Thomas Kuhn, in his influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962), a change in the basic assumptions, or paradigms, within the ruling theory of science. It is in contrast to his idea of normal science. According to Kuhn, "A paradigm is what members of a scientific community, and they alone, share" (The Essential Tension, 1977). Unlike a normal scientist, Kuhn held, "a student in the humanities has constantly before him a number of competing and incommensurable solutions to these problems, solutions that he must ultimately examine for himself" (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions). Kuhnian paradigm shifts Kuhn used the duck-rabbit optical illusion to demonstrate the way in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in an entirely different way. Science and paradigm shift Examples of paradigm shifts Natural sciences Social sciences Marketing M.