Lecture 1: What is Civilization? Up to about the year 1860, man's history had been conveniently divided into three distinct epochs: ancient, medieval and modern. After 1860, however, a new expression came into general use to describe the cultures of the distant past. Pre-history was the name given to that period of man's history before written documents appeared. We can now study man's pre-history through the field of archeology. archaeological site, Turkey Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts, subscripts, and special characters. You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content: We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.
Nubia - The Other Egypt Much has been written about the splendors of ancient Egypt. Less has been written about ancient Nubia. Yet for centuries Nubia was a center of trade and cultural exchange in the ancient world. What is Civilization Rewritten September 26, 2010 The old master Will Durant begins: "Civilization is social order promoting cultural creation." He goes on to describe four elements that constitute it, one of which is economic activity. I'm bothered by Durant's attempt to answer his question, "What is Civilization?" Oswald Spengler and Arnold Toynbee also annoyed a lot of people with their verbosity on the subject. Toynbee described what he called "nomadic civilization" as having failed. Social Studies in the Middle School A Report of the Task Force on Social Studies in the Middle School Approved by NCSS Board of Directors, January 1991 Tedd Levy, Chair, Norwalk, Connecticut; Pat Nickell, Vice Chair, Lexington, Kentucky; Peggy Altoff, Baltimore, Maryland; Loretta Hannum, Williamsburg, Virginia; Alan Haskvitz, Alta Loma, California; Mel Miller, Washington, Michigan; Richard Moulden, Bellevue, Washington Introduction Today's young people are a source of growing social and academic concern. According to the Carnegie Corporation, nearly half of some 28 million adolescents in the United States between the ages of ten and seventeen are moderately or extremely vulnerable to "multiple high-risk behaviors" such as school failure, drugs and alcohol, unsafe sex, and violence that puts their future in serious jeopardy.
Emergence of Civilization:Overview Description: Three to five thousand years ago, many groups of people lived in the Mediterranean area of the world and created the first traditions that can be traced to western culture. These cultures and this part of the world have been called the "Cradle of Civilization." Does each group qualify to be a civilization? Great archeological sites La Natière : The Saint-Malo shipwrecks Underwater archaeology at Saint-Malo 300 years ago Is Civilization A Universally Bad Idea? : 13.7: Cosmos And Culture Sean Gallup/Getty Images The ice ages came and the ice ages went. For more than a half-million years Homo sapiens endured the changing climate by adapting. Then, deep in the frozen expanse of the last global big chill, something new happened. We woke up to ourselves in a new way. We became self-conscious, creating art, culture and tools of far greater complexity than anything that had come before.
Did A Cultural Shift Influence Human Evolution? How Farming Might Have Changed Genetic Diversity If you’ve ever wondered why people have varying skin tones, it’s because about 1.2 million years ago, we all migrated from Africa, where dark skin protected us from the sun’s damaging ultraviolet rays, to other areas of the world like Europe, where sunlight isn’t so strong. Over time, skin became lighter to allow for the sun’s absorption during winter months. When it comes to genetic diversity, those who left Africa brought with them only a small sample of the diversity that remained in Africa. This concept is known as a “bottleneck,” and a recent study finds it happened again more recently, but only in men. Conducted by researchers at Arizona State University, the study found that between 4,000 and 8,000 years ago, a bottleneck among only men caused genetic diversity to decline. Women’s genetic diversity, on the other hand, thrived.
Wealth and power may have played a stronger role than 'survival of the fittest' The DNA you inherit from your parents contributes to the physical make-up of your body -- whether you have blue eyes or brown, black hair or red, or are male or female. Your DNA can also influence whether you might develop certain diseases or disorders such as Crohn's Disease, cystic fibrosis, hemophilia or neurofibromatosis, to name a few. In a study led by scientists from Arizona State University, the University of Cambridge, University of Tartu and Estonian Biocentre, and published March 13 in an online issue of the journal Genome Research, researchers discovered a dramatic decline in genetic diversity in male lineages four to eight thousand years ago -- likely the result of the accumulation of material wealth, while in contrast, female genetic diversity was on the rise. This male-specific decline occurred during the mid- to late-Neolithic period. "Most surprisingly to us, we detected another, male-specific, bottleneck during a period of global growth.
The Agricultural Revolution Return to Sociology Timeline The agricultural revolution produced a transformation of human society brought about by the invention of the plow, making large-scale agricultural production possible and leading to agrarian societies. The agricultural revolution had such a profound impact on society that many people call this era the "dawn of civilization." During this same period that the plow was invented, the wheel, writing, and numbers were also invented. The Neolithic Revolution A Settled Life When people think of the Neolithic era, they often think of Stonehenge, the iconic image of this early era. Dating to approximately 3000 B.C.E. and set on Salisbury Plain in England, it is a structure larger and more complex than anything built before it in Europe. Stonehenge is an example of the cultural advances brought about by the Neolithic revolution—the most important development in human history. The way we live today, settled in homes, close to other people in towns and cities, protected by laws, eating food grown on farms, and with leisure time to learn, explore and invent is all a result of the Neolithic revolution, which occurred approximately 11,500-5,000 years ago. The revolution which led to our way of life was the development of the technology needed to plant and harvest crops and to domesticate animals.
Neolithic Europe's Remote Heart In 2002, Ola and Arnie Tait decided they wanted to change the view from their kitchen window. Rather than staring at a sheep pasture, they envisioned looking out onto a wildflower meadow full of poppies, cornflowers, buttercups, and singing birds. Their farm, on Orkney, a remote archipelago of 70 islands 10 miles off the north coast of Scotland, sits in a stunning natural setting, on a narrow strip of land between two sparkling lochs, and is equidistant from two of the most significant Neolithic stone circle monuments: the Standing Stones of Stenness and the Ring of Brodgar, each less than a mile away. In 2003, the Taits plowed their field in preparation for planting that meadow.