Monument to the Conquerors of Space Monument as observed against the sun on a bright spring day. Coordinates: 55°49′22″N 37°38′24″E / 55.82278°N 37.64000°E / 55.82278; 37.64000 The Monument to the Conquerors of Space (Russian: Монумент «Покорителям космоса») was erected in Moscow in 1964 to celebrate achievements of the Soviet people in space exploration. Location and surroundings Since the 1960s, this part of Moscow in general has had a high concentration of space-themed sights and names: besides the monument and the museum under it, the grand "Cosmos" pavilion in the Exhibition Centre displayed many artifacts of the Soviet space program. History In March 1958, a few months after the launch of Sputnik 1, a competition was announced for the best design of an obelisk celebrating the dawn of the Space Age. The monument was designed to accommodate a museum in its base. Design and sculpture A statue of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the precursor of astronautics, is located in front of the obelisk. Clones
Laika Romanian stamp from 1959 with Laika (the caption reads "Laika, first traveller into Cosmos") Laika (Russian: Лайка, meaning "Barker"; c. 1954 – November 3, 1957) was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth. As little was known about the impact of spaceflight on living creatures at the time of Laika's mission, and as the technology to de-orbit had not yet been developed, there was no expectation of Laika's survival. Some scientists believed humans would be unable to survive the launch or the conditions of outer space, so engineers viewed flights by animals as a necessary precursor to human missions. Laika, a stray dog from the streets of Moscow, was originally named Kudryavka (Russian: Кудрявка Little Curly). On April 11, 2008, Russian officials unveiled a monument to Laika. Sputnik 2 To meet the November deadline, a new craft would have to be built. Training Preflight preparations Voyage Notes
Star City, Russia Coordinates: Star City (Russian: Звёздный городо́к, Zvyozdny gorodok) is a common name of an area in Moscow Oblast, Russia, which has since the 1960s been home to the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC). Officially, the area was known as "closed military townlet No. 1" and at various times had also been designated as Shchyolkovo-14 (Щёлково-14) and Zvyozdny (Звёздный). Mir mockup in the training center pool Overview Cosmonauts of the Russian Federal Space Agency, and the Soviet space program before it, have lived and trained in Star City since the 1960s. In the summer 1992, American "Youth Science Ambassadors" sponsored by People to People International were hosted at Star City where they were treated to a presentation by cosmonaut Anatoly Artsebarsky. The "space dog" Laika, the first animal to orbit the earth, has a statue in Star City. Transport Incorporation References External links
Science/Nature | First dog in space died within hours The dog Laika, the first living creature to orbit the Earth, did not live nearly as long as Soviet officials led the world to believe. The animal, launched on a one-way trip on board Sputnik 2 in November 1957, was said to have died painlessly in orbit about a week after blast-off. Now, it has been revealed she died from overheating and panic just a few hours after the mission started. The new evidence was presented at the recent World Space Congress in Houston, Texas, US, by Dimitri Malashenkov of the Institute for Biological Problems in Moscow. Noted space historian Sven Grahn told BBC News Online that the new information was surprising and significant as it ended more than 40 years of speculation about Laika's fate. Space pioneer Laika's mission on board Sputnik 2 stunned the world. It was a metal sphere weighing about 18 kg (40 lbs) and was far heavier than anything the United States was contemplating launching. Racing pulse Death in space Dr Malashenkov also revealed how Laika died.
Domesticated silver fox The result of over 50 years of experiments in the Soviet Union and Russia, the breeding project was set up in 1959 by Soviet scientist Dmitri Belyaev. It continues today at The Institute of Cytology and Genetics at Novosibirsk, under the supervision of Lyudmila Trut. Initial experimentation In a time when centralized political control exercised over genetics and agriculture was an official state doctrine, known as Lysenkoism, Belyaev's commitment to classical genetics had cost him his job as head of the Department of Fur Animal Breeding at the Central Research Laboratory of Fur Breeding in Moscow in 1948. During the 1950s, he continued to conduct genetic research under the guise of studying animal physiology. Belyaev believed that the key factor selected for in the domestication of dogs was not size or reproduction, but behavior; specifically, tameability. The project also investigated breeding vicious foxes to study aggressive behavior. Current project status
Lost Cosmonauts Lost Cosmonauts, or Phantom Cosmonauts, is a conspiracy theory alleging that Soviet cosmonauts entered outer space, but without their existence having been acknowledged by either the Soviet or Russian space authorities. Proponents of the Lost Cosmonauts theory concede that Yuri Gagarin was the first man to survive human spaceflight, but claim that the Soviet Union attempted to launch two or more manned space flights prior to Gagarin's, and that at least two cosmonauts died in the attempts. Another cosmonaut, Vladimir Ilyushin, is believed to have landed off-course and been held by the Chinese government. The Government of the Soviet Union supposedly suppressed this information, to prevent bad publicity during the height of the Cold War. The evidence cited to support Lost Cosmonaut theories is generally not regarded as conclusive, and several cases have been confirmed as hoaxes. Allegations Purported Czech information leak High-altitude equipment tests Heinlein
5 Soviet Space Programs That Prove Russia Was Insane The thing about the Iron Curtain is that we'll never fully know what crazy shit went on behind it during the Cold War. And that's too bad, because the little hints that leak out really make it look like these people just did not give a shit. Take the Soviet space program. Here are five spectacularly audacious Soviet space programs that prove that in Soviet Russia, space goes into you. #5. Between 1951 and 1966, the USSR sent over twenty dogs into the cosmos, but to be fair, they weren't the only ones who tested the viability of human space travel by sending animals up first. We're guessing PETA never had a Soviet equivalent. Take Laika, for example. They honored her sacrifice with a stamp, that she might torment postal workers for generations to come. Except, oh wait, that's not how Laika died at all. Via Wikipedia CommonsAll horror aside, that little space suit might be the most adorable thing we've ever seen. (Spoiler: it wasn't.) #4. Transmission begins now. Conditions growing worse. #3.
Alexey Leonov Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (Russian: Алексе́й Архи́пович Лео́нов, IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksʲej ɐˈrxʲipəvʲɪtɕ lʲɪˈonəf]; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut and Air Force Major General. On 18 March 1965, he became the first human to conduct extra-vehicular activity (EVA), exiting the capsule during the Voskhod 2 mission for a 12-minute spacewalk. Biography Alexey Leonov (left, back row) with fellow cosmonauts in 1965 Leonov was one of the 20 Soviet Air Force pilots selected to be part of the first cosmonaut group in 1960. Like all the Soviet cosmonauts, Leonov was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. As of November 2011, Leonov is the last survivor of the five cosmonauts in the Voskhod programme. Leonov was to have commanded the next mission to Salyut 1, but this was scrapped after the deaths of the Soyuz 11 crew members, and the space station was lost. Leonov's painting Near the Moon (1967) Honours and awards
Cosmonaut Crashed Into Earth 'Crying In Rage' : Krulwich Wonders... Editor's Note, Updated April 24, 2012: We received many comments and questions on this post, which you can read here. Robert later wrote this update to this story with more details and amendments. So there's a cosmonaut up in space, circling the globe, convinced he will never make it back to Earth; he's on the phone with Alexei Kosygin — then a high official of the Soviet Union — who is crying because he, too, thinks the cosmonaut will die. hide captionVladimir Komarov's remains in an open casket RIA Novosti/Photo Researchers Inc. Vladimir Komarov's remains in an open casket The space vehicle is shoddily constructed, running dangerously low on fuel; its parachutes — though no one knows this — won't work and the cosmonaut, Vladimir Komarov, is about to, literally, crash full speed into Earth, his body turning molten on impact. hide captionGagarin (left) and Komarov out hunting RIA Novosti /Photo Researchers, Inc Gagarin (left) and Komarov out hunting The problem was Gagarin. Americans Died, Too
Salyut programme Salyut 7, the final Salyut station to be launched, as seen from the departing Soyuz T-13 spacecraft The Salyut programme (Russian: Салю́т, IPA: [sɐˈlʲut], Salute or Fireworks) was the first space station programme undertaken by the Soviet Union, which consisted of a series of four crewed scientific research space stations and two crewed military reconnaissance space stations over a period of 15 years from 1971 to 1986. Two other Salyut launches failed. Salyut was, on the one hand, designed to carry out long-term research into the problems of living in space and a variety of astronomical, biological and Earth-resources experiments, and on the other hand this civilian program was used as a cover for the highly secretive military Almaz stations, which flew under the Salyut designation. Salyut broke several spaceflight records, including several mission duration records, the first ever orbital handover of a space station from one crew to another, and various spacewalk records. DOS-2
Maps Soyuz 11 Soyuz 11 (Russian: Союз 11, Union 11) was the first and only manned mission to board the world's first space station, Salyut 1 (Soyuz 10 had soft-docked but had not been able to enter due to latching issues). The mission arrived at the space station on 7 June 1971 and departed on 30 June. The mission ended in disaster when the crew capsule depressurised during preparations for reentry, killing the three-man crew. This accident resulted in the only human deaths to occur in space (as opposed to high atmosphere). The crew members aboard Soyuz 11 were Vladislav Volkov, Georgi Dobrovolski, and Viktor Patsayev. Crew Backup crew Original crew Crew notes The original prime crew for Soyuz 11 consisted of Alexei Leonov, Valeri Kubasov and Pyotr Kolodin. Mission highlights The Soyuz 7K-OKS spacecraft was launched on 7 June 1971, from Baikonur Cosmodrome in central Kazakh SSR. Death of crew It quickly became apparent that they had asphyxiated.
Earthrise "Earthrise" taken on December 24, 1968 The conversation between Frank Borman and William Anders, during the taking of the Earthrise photograph Earthrise Revisited 2013, a recreation showing the rising Earth as it must have looked to Anders, Borman, and Lovell 45 years ago. Earthrise is the name given to a photograph of the Earth that was taken by astronaut William Anders in 1968 during the Apollo 8 mission. Nature photographer Galen Rowell declared it "the most influential environmental photograph ever taken Details Earthrise is the name given to NASA image AS8-14-2383, taken by astronaut William Anders during the Apollo 8 mission, the first manned voyage to orbit the Moon.  The photograph was taken from lunar orbit on December 24, 1968 with a highly modified Hasselblad 500 EL with an electric drive. Anders: Oh my God! There were many images taken at that point. The stamp issue reproduces the cloud, color, and crater patterns of the Anders picture. Geometry Legacy