Penn study shows why sleep is needed to form memories PHILADELPHIA – If you ever argued with your mother when she told you to get some sleep after studying for an exam instead of pulling an all-nighter, you owe her an apology, because it turns out she's right. And now, scientists are beginning to understand why. In research published this week in Neuron, Marcos Frank, PhD, Assistant Professor of Neuroscience, at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, postdoctoral researcher Sara Aton, PhD, and colleagues describe for the first time how cellular changes in the sleeping brain promote the formation of memories. "This is the first real direct insight into how the brain, on a cellular level, changes the strength of its connections during sleep," Frank says. The findings, says Frank, reveal that the brain during sleep is fundamentally different from the brain during wakefulness. "We find that the biochemical changes are simply not happening in the neurons of animals that are awake," Frank says. A molecular explanation is emerging.
Nanotechnology Basics Home > Introduction > Nanotechnology Basics Nanotechnology Basics Last Updated: Friday, 14-Jun-2013 09:28:04 PDT What is Nanotechnology? Answers differ depending on who you ask, and their background. Broadly speaking however, nanotechnology is the act of purposefully manipulating matter at the atomic scale, otherwise known as the "nanoscale." Coined as "nano-technology" in a 1974 paper by Norio Taniguchi at the University of Tokyo, and encompassing a multitude of rapidly emerging technologies, based upon the scaling down of existing technologies to the next level of precision and miniaturization. Foresight Nanotech Institute Founder K. In the future, "nanotechnology" will likely include building machines and mechanisms with nanoscale dimensions, referred to these days as Molecular Nanotechnology (MNT). Click image for larger version. This image was written using Dip-Pen Nanolithography, and imaged using lateral force microscopy mode of an atomic force microscope. "We know it's possible.
This May Very Well Be the First New Earth logy Magazine Robots could one day navigate through constantly changing surroundings with virtually no input from humans, thanks to a system that allows them to build and continuously update a three-dimensional map of their environment using a low-cost camera such as Microsoft’s Kinect. The technology could be useful on future robotic missions in the Solar System. With improved navigation, robotic rovers could more efficiently explore the surface of planets like Mars, allowing them to collect and return more data concerning the potential habitability of the martian environment. The system, being developed by researchers at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL), could also allow blind people to make their way unaided through crowded buildings such as hospitals and shopping malls. The new approach, based on a technique called Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM), will allow robots to constantly update a map as they learn new information over time, he says.
Data, Information, Knowledge, & Wisdom by Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony Mills There is probably no segment of activity in the world attracting as much attention at present as that of knowledge management. Yet as I entered this arena of activity I quickly found there didn't seem to be a wealth of sources that seemed to make sense in terms of defining what knowledge actually was, and how was it differentiated from data, information, and wisdom. What follows is the current level of understanding I have been able to piece together regarding data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. I figured to understand one of them I had to understand all of them. According to Russell Ackoff, a systems theorist and professor of organizational change, the content of the human mind can be classified into five categories: Ackoff indicates that the first four categories relate to the past; they deal with what has been or what is known. A further elaboration of Ackoff's definitions follows: Data... data is raw. Ex: It is raining. What is it?
Hi-Res Images of Hydrogen Nonmetal, mass: 1.008 u, 2 stable isotopes (1, 2), abundance rank (earth/space): 9/1 Click image to magnify. Vial of glowing ultrapure hydrogen, H2. Original size in cm: 1 x 5. How to make gases glow. Hydrogen is the lightest and simplest element and, with a ratio of 80%, is the main ingredient of the visible universe. 20% consist of helium, the ratio of the heavier elements is below 1%. Right: The Great Orion Nebula, 80% hydrogen. The images are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License, unless otherwise noted. Why are past, present, and future our only options? But things get awkward if you have a friend. (Use your imagination if necessary.) Low blow, Dr. Dave. Low blow... But seriously, I always figured if there was more than one dimension of time, that moving "left" or "right" would be the equivalent of moving to a parallel universe where things were slightly different. That is to say, maybe time really is 2 dimensional, but for all the reasons you mention, we're normally only aware of one of them—and for the most part, the same one that most of the people we meet are aware of. But take, say, a schizophrenic person—maybe they're tuned in differently; moving sideways through time instead of forward... or maybe moving through (and aware of) both simultaneously. They can't form coherent thoughts because they're constantly confronted with overlapping and shifting realities. I dunno... that's all just speculation, of course, but I find that thought fascinating.
X3 Gyroplane Uses 15 Blades to Race at 253MPH robots.net - Robot news and Robotics Info The Ultimate Field Guide to Subatomic Particles This is, for the most part, an accurate article, except for a few statements. "Exactly what makes a fermion a fermion is a bit complicated, but suffice it to say that fermions are all the particles that deal with matter. So what about the last group of elementary particles, the ones that don't deal with matter? These are the bosons, and they deal with the fundamental forces of the universe." The statements above can be misinterpreted as suggesting that fermions are defined as particles that deal with matter and bosons are defined as particles that deal with forces. And that is not true. Particles that deal with matter are fermions and particles that carry the fundamental forces are bosons. What fermions and bosons really are have to do with two apparently unrelated (but actually related) particle properties: spin and statistics. "There are four known bosons" See, this is an example of the misconception I just mentioned. According to special relativity, not general relativity.
Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: Chatbot NetLogo Model Produced for the book series "Artificial Intelligence"; Author: W. J. Teahan; Publisher: Ventus Publishing Aps, Denmark. powered by NetLogo view/download model file: Chatbot.nlogo This model implements two basic chatbots - Liza and Harry. The model makes use of an extension to NetLogo called "re" for regular expressions. First press the setup button in the Interface - this will load the rules for each chatbot. The Interface buttons are defined as follows:- setup: This loads the rules for each chatbots.- chat: This starts or continues the conversation with the chatbot that was selected using the bot chooser. The Interface chooser and switch is defined as follows:- bot: This sets the chatbot to the Liza chatbot, the Harry chatbot or Both.- debug-conversation: If this is set to On, debug information is also printed showing which rules matched. Harry seems to do a bit better at being paranoid than Liza does at being a Rogerian psychotherapist. Try adding your own rules to the chatbots.
One of These Amazing Inventions Will Win the International Dyson Award Next Week Ant behavior inspires more efficient warehouse robots Fraunhofer's Multishuttle Moves robots, in the distribution center mock-up When it comes to groups that work together to get a job done, ants have pretty much got the process perfected. That’s why computer scientist Marco Dorigo studied the creatures’ behavior, and created his Ant Colony Optimization model – an algorithmic technique that can be applied to human endeavors, when efficiency is the order of the day. Scientists from Germany’s Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics have now applied these algorithms to a swarm of 50 autonomous shuttle robots working in a parts warehouse, in an effort to create a new and better type of materials-handling system. The warehouse is actually a 1,000 square-meter (10,764 sq-ft) research facility, equipped to simulate a distribution center. Besides having microprocessors running software based on the ant algorithms, the robots are also equipped with distance sensors, accelerometers, and laser scanners. Source: Fraunhofer About the Author