Alexey Leonov Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (Russian: Алексе́й Архи́пович Лео́нов, IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksʲej ɐˈrxʲipəvʲɪtɕ lʲɪˈonəf]; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut and Air Force Major General. On 18 March 1965, he became the first human to conduct extra-vehicular activity (EVA), exiting the capsule during the Voskhod 2 mission for a 12-minute spacewalk. Biography Alexey Leonov (left, back row) with fellow cosmonauts in 1965 Leonov was one of the 20 Soviet Air Force pilots selected to be part of the first cosmonaut group in 1960. As of November 2011, Leonov is the last survivor of the five cosmonauts in the Voskhod programme. Leonov was to have commanded the next mission to Salyut 1, but this was scrapped after the deaths of the Soyuz 11 crew members, and the space station was lost. Leonov's painting Near the Moon (1967) In 2001, he was a vice president of Moscow-based Alfa-Bank and an adviser to the first deputy of the Board.
Lost Cosmonauts Lost Cosmonauts, or Phantom Cosmonauts, is a conspiracy theory alleging that Soviet cosmonauts entered outer space, but without their existence having been acknowledged by either the Soviet or Russian space authorities. Proponents of the Lost Cosmonauts theory concede that Yuri Gagarin was the first man to survive human spaceflight, but claim that the Soviet Union attempted to launch two or more manned space flights prior to Gagarin's, and that at least two cosmonauts died in the attempts. Another cosmonaut, Vladimir Ilyushin, is believed to have landed off-course and been held by the Chinese government. The evidence cited to support Lost Cosmonaut theories is generally not regarded as conclusive, and several cases have been confirmed as hoaxes. Allegations Purported Czech information leak In December 1959, an alleged high-ranking Czech Communist leaked information about many purported unofficial space shots. High-altitude equipment tests Heinlein
Cosmonaut Crashed Into Earth 'Crying In Rage' : Krulwich Wonders... Editor's Note, Updated April 24, 2012: We received many comments and questions on this post, which you can read here. Robert later wrote this update to this story with more details and amendments. So there's a cosmonaut up in space, circling the globe, convinced he will never make it back to Earth; he's on the phone with Alexei Kosygin — then a high official of the Soviet Union — who is crying because he, too, thinks the cosmonaut will die. hide captionVladimir Komarov's remains in an open casket RIA Novosti/Photo Researchers Inc. Vladimir Komarov's remains in an open casket The space vehicle is shoddily constructed, running dangerously low on fuel; its parachutes — though no one knows this — won't work and the cosmonaut, Vladimir Komarov, is about to, literally, crash full speed into Earth, his body turning molten on impact. hide captionGagarin (left) and Komarov out hunting RIA Novosti /Photo Researchers, Inc Gagarin (left) and Komarov out hunting The problem was Gagarin. Americans Died, Too
Salyut programme Salyut 7, the final Salyut station to be launched, as seen from the departing Soyuz T-13 spacecraft The Salyut programme (Russian: Салю́т, IPA: [sɐˈlʲut], Salute or Fireworks) was the first space station programme undertaken by the Soviet Union, which consisted of a series of four crewed scientific research space stations and two crewed military reconnaissance space stations over a period of 15 years from 1971 to 1986. Two other Salyut launches failed. Salyut broke several spaceflight records, including several mission duration records, the first ever orbital handover of a space station from one crew to another, and various spacewalk records. Mir-2 (DOS-8), the final spacecraft from the Salyut series, became one of the first modules of the ISS, and the first module of the ISS, Russian-made Zarya, relied heavily on technologies developed in the Salyut programme. History of Salyut space stations Initially the space stations were to be named Zarya, the Russian word for 'Dawn'.
Science/Nature | First dog in space died within hours The dog Laika, the first living creature to orbit the Earth, did not live nearly as long as Soviet officials led the world to believe. The animal, launched on a one-way trip on board Sputnik 2 in November 1957, was said to have died painlessly in orbit about a week after blast-off. Now, it has been revealed she died from overheating and panic just a few hours after the mission started. The new evidence was presented at the recent World Space Congress in Houston, Texas, US, by Dimitri Malashenkov of the Institute for Biological Problems in Moscow. Noted space historian Sven Grahn told BBC News Online that the new information was surprising and significant as it ended more than 40 years of speculation about Laika's fate. Space pioneer Laika's mission on board Sputnik 2 stunned the world. It was a metal sphere weighing about 18 kg (40 lbs) and was far heavier than anything the United States was contemplating launching. Racing pulse Death in space Dr Malashenkov also revealed how Laika died.
Soyuz 11 Soyuz 11 (Russian: Союз 11, Union 11) was the first and only manned mission to board the world's first space station, Salyut 1 (Soyuz 10 had soft-docked but had not been able to enter due to latching issues). The mission arrived at the space station on 7 June 1971 and departed on 30 June. The mission ended in disaster when the crew capsule depressurised during preparations for reentry, killing the three-man crew. This accident resulted in the only human deaths to occur in space (as opposed to high atmosphere). The crew members aboard Soyuz 11 were Vladislav Volkov, Georgi Dobrovolski, and Viktor Patsayev. Crew Backup crew Original crew Crew notes The original prime crew for Soyuz 11 consisted of Alexei Leonov, Valeri Kubasov and Pyotr Kolodin. Mission highlights The Soyuz 7K-OKS spacecraft was launched on 7 June 1971, from Baikonur Cosmodrome in central Kazakh SSR. Death of crew It quickly became apparent that they had asphyxiated.
Maps Laika Romanian stamp from 1959 with Laika (the caption reads "Laika, first traveller into Cosmos") Laika (Russian: Лайка, meaning "Barker"; c. 1954 – November 3, 1957) was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth. As little was known about the impact of spaceflight on living creatures at the time of Laika's mission, and as the technology to de-orbit had not yet been developed, there was no expectation of Laika's survival. Laika died within hours after launch from overheating, possibly caused by a failure of the central R-7 sustainer to separate from the payload. The true cause and time of her death were not made public until 2002; instead, it was widely reported that she died when her oxygen ran out on day six, or as the Soviet government initially claimed, she was euthanised prior to oxygen depletion. On April 11, 2008, Russian officials unveiled a monument to Laika. Sputnik 2 Training Voyage Notes
Yuri Gagarin Gagarin became an international celebrity, and was awarded many medals and titles, including Hero of the Soviet Union, the nation's highest honour. Vostok 1 marked his only spaceflight, but he served as backup crew to the Soyuz 1 mission (which ended in a fatal crash). Gagarin later became deputy training director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre outside Moscow, which was later named after him. Early life and education Yuri Gagarin was born in the village of Klushino, near Gzhatsk (renamed Gagarin in 1968 after his death), on 9 March 1934. His parents worked on a collective farm: Alexey Ivanovich Gagarin as a carpenter and bricklayer, and Anna Timofeyevna Gagarina as a milkmaid. Like millions of people in the Soviet Union, the Gagarin family suffered during Nazi occupation in World War II. Another version of Gagarin's biography suggests that his family fled east to the Ural Mountains before German army reached Gzhatsk in 1941, and they returned only when the war ended. Vostok 1
Earthrise "Earthrise" taken on December 24, 1968 The conversation between Frank Borman and William Anders, during the taking of the Earthrise photograph Earthrise Revisited 2013, a recreation showing the rising Earth as it must have looked to Anders, Borman, and Lovell 45 years ago. Earthrise is the name given to a photograph of the Earth that was taken by astronaut William Anders in 1968 during the Apollo 8 mission. Details Earthrise is the name given to NASA image AS8-14-2383, taken by astronaut William Anders during the Apollo 8 mission, the first manned voyage to orbit the Moon.  The photograph was taken from lunar orbit on December 24, 1968 with a highly modified Hasselblad 500 EL with an electric drive. Anders: Oh my God! There were many images taken at that point. The stamp issue reproduces the cloud, color, and crater patterns of the Anders picture. Geometry The as-published photograph shows Earth: Legacy Stamp United States postage stamp Scott #1371 2008 video
Monument to the Conquerors of Space Monument as observed against the sun on a bright spring day. Coordinates: 55°49′22″N 37°38′24″E / 55.82278°N 37.64000°E / 55.82278; 37.64000 The Monument to the Conquerors of Space (Russian: Монумент «Покорителям космоса») was erected in Moscow in 1964 to celebrate achievements of the Soviet people in space exploration. It depicts a starting rocket that rises on its contrail. The monument is 110 m tall, has 77° incline, and is made of titanium. The Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics is located inside the base of the monument. Location and surroundings Since the 1960s, this part of Moscow in general has had a high concentration of space-themed sights and names: besides the monument and the museum under it, the grand "Cosmos" pavilion in the Exhibition Centre displayed many artifacts of the Soviet space program. History In March 1958, a few months after the launch of Sputnik 1, a competition was announced for the best design of an obelisk celebrating the dawn of the Space Age.
Building It - The Space Shuttle Orbiter Great post, but if any of you really want to delve deep, you should pick up a copy of Dennis R. Jenkins' book on the history of the Shuttle's development. Ordered! This post was mostly an excuse to show the cool assembly pictures I found when I put my mind to looking for them. I would also recommend Stages to Saturn. It does a deep dive on the Saturn V. The book arrived today. One thing that bugged me when I was reading my edition was that whenever there was a picture of the External Tank from STS-1, he'd refer to it as the one from STS-2. SExpand (EDIT: Okay, precisely how the fuck did this image get flipped upside-down?! The STS-1 tank had that black stripe near the nose... ...that wasn't there on the STS-2 tank. This had made me very happy, because I'd bought the Revell kit of the full launch stack after the first mission, and I'd been worrying about how to paint that stripe around the nose evenly, so when I saw that the STS-2 tank didn't have that...