Wimpy Idea - Carnegie Mellon Today One afternoon, two Carnegie Mellon graduate students stop by Dave Andersen’s office in Wean Hall to brainstorm project ideas for their computer architecture class. They bandy about some possibilities, covering the whiteboard with equations and graphs. But to their frustration, nothing clicks. So Andersen, an associate professor of computer science, turns to one of his old standbys for inspiration. Now it suddenly occurs to him what that “something” might be. In this age of 24/7 online access through computers, tablets, and smartphones, creating reliable connectivity is no small task. Skyrocketing electrical bills cut into profits, so Web companies and others are thinking seriously about the problem of energy efficiency. It also can affect the future of our planet. For all of the time he spent outdoors as a child, he has spent just as many hours in front of his computer. Andersen was smitten. But as Ranganathan noted, FAWN is not going away.
Longhouse A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe and North America. Many were built from timber and often represent the earliest form of permanent structure in many cultures. Types include the Neolithic long house of Europe, the stone Medieval Dartmoor longhouse which also housed livestock, and the various types of longhouses built by different cultures among the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Europe There are two European longhouse types of designs that are now extinct. The medieval longhouse types of Europe of which some have survived are among others: Dartmoor granite longhouse Medieval development of the Germanic longhouse The Americas In South America, the Tucano people of Colombia and northwest Brazil traditionally combine a household in a single long house. Asia Ancient Mumun pottery period culture Taiwan Borneo longhouse Siberut
Four causes Four Causes refers to an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby causes of change or movement are categorized into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?". Aristotle wrote that "we do not have knowledge of a thing until we have grasped its why, that is to say, its cause." While there are cases where identifying a cause is difficult, or in which causes might merge, Aristotle was convinced that his four causes provided an analytical scheme of general applicability. Aristotle held that there were four kinds of causes: A change or movement's material cause is the aspect of the change or movement which is determined by the material which the moving or changing things are made of. Meaning of "cause" Material cause The material cause of an object is equivalent to the nature of the raw material out of which the object is composed. Whereas modern physics looks to simple bodies, Aristotle's physics instead treated living things as exemplary.
Netbook Chips Create a Low-Power Cloud Using a cluster of the same processors that normally show up in netbooks and similar mobile devices, researchers have created a powerful server architecture that draws less power than a lightbulb. The architecture, dubbed a “fast array of wimpy nodes,” or FAWN, offers a way to decrease by an order of magnitude the amount of power used by the computational infrastructure of Internet giants like Google, Microsoft, Amazon, eBay, Facebook, and others. If the predictions of its inventors are borne out, it could have a significant impact on both the bottom line and the environmental impact of cloud computing. Power now accounts for up to 50 percent of the cost of operating data centers, and in the United States, its cost per kilowatt-hour is increasing.
History of Chinese art Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists. The Chinese art in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and that of overseas Chinese can also be considered part of Chinese art where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage and Chinese culture. Early "stone age art" dates back to 10,000 BC, mostly consisting of simple pottery and sculptures. After this early period Chinese art, like Chinese history, is typically classified by the succession of ruling dynasties of Chinese emperors, most of which lasted several hundred years. Chinese art has arguably the oldest continuous tradition in the world, and is marked by an unusual degree of continuity within, and consciousness of, that tradition, lacking an equivalent to the Western collapse and gradual recovery of classical styles. Painting The two main techniques in Chinese painting are: Sculpture Pottery Decorative arts Neolithic pottery Pottery
Telos (philosophy) In contrast to telos, techne is the rational method involved in producing an object or accomplishing a goal or objective; however, the two methods are not mutually exclusive in principle. CAP theorem In theoretical computer science, the CAP theorem, also known as Brewer's theorem, states that it is impossible for a distributed computer system to simultaneously provide all three of the following guarantees: In 2012 Brewer clarified some of his positions, including why the oft-used "two out of three" concept can be misleading or misapplied, and the different definition of consistency used in CAP relative to the one used in ACID. History The proof of the CAP theorem by Gilbert and Lynch is a bit narrower than that which Brewer had in mind. The theorem sets up a scenario in which a replicated service is presented with two conflicting requests arriving at distinct locations at a time when a link between them is failed. The obligation to provide availability despite partitioning failures leads the services to respond; at least one of these responses shall necessarily be inconsistent with what a service implementing a true one-copy replication semantic would have done.
Norse art Timeline for the Norse animal styles. Viking Age art or Norse art is a term for the art of Scandinavia and Viking settlements elsewhere, especially in the British Isles, during the Viking Age. Viking art has many elements in common with Celtic Art, Romanesque art and East-European (Eurasian). Historical Context Styles The animal ornamentation of the Viking Age is usually categorized into Oseberg style, Borre style, Jelling style, Mammen style, Ringerike style and Urnes style. Oseberg style The Oseberg style is a Viking Era animal ornamentation in Viking Age art. It is named after the Oseberg ship grave, a well-preserved Viking age ship discovered in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold County, Norway. The characteristic motif of the style is gripping beasts. The main symbol of the Viking Age is the Viking ship. A "Shield List" is where all the shields of the warriors were tied up. Borre style Bronze pendant from Hedeby
The Republic (Plato) Three interpretations of the Republic are presented; they are not exhaustive in their treatments of the work, but are examples of contemporary interpretation. In his A History of Western Philosophy (1945), Bertrand Russell identifies three parts to the Republic: Books I–V: the eutopia portraying the ideal community and the education of the Guardians, parting from attempting to define justice;Books VI–VII: define “philosopher”, since philosophers are the ideal rulers of such a community;Books VIII–X: discuss the pros and cons of various practical forms of government. Francis Cornford, Kurt Hildebrandt (de), and Eric Voegelin contributed to an establishment of sub-divisions marked with special formulae in Greek: Prologue I.1. 327a—328b. I.2—I.5. 328b—331d. I.6—1.9. 331e—336a. I.10—1.24. 336b—354c. Introduction II.1—II.10. 357a—369b. Part I: Genesis and Order of the Polis II.11—II.16. 369b—376e. II.16—III.18. 376e—412b. III.19—IV.5. 412b—427c. IV.6—IV.19. 427c—445e. V.1—V.16. 449a—471c. P.
Platform Thinking: The Future of Work — Armchair Economics Every business is an engine. It needs to do a certain set of things repeatedly to create value. If you haven’t figured out that set of repeated operations, you probably haven’t created a scalable business yet. Ford needs to repeatedly assemble cars; Google needs to repeatedly run its crawler; Facebook needs to repeatedly get users to interact with other users. Every business goes through three stages: Creating the engine: Early stage, figuring out the set of repeatable operations it needs to do to create value.Oiling the engine: Rapid testing and iterating to refine and optimize the repeatable operations.Stepping on the gas: Scaling by repeating the repeatable operations. This is the formula for building a business: You figure out how you are creating value. There are three broad ways that businesses conduct these operations repeatedly and get things done: Get employees to do the work.Get algorithms to do the work.Get users to do the work.
Mead Mead (/ˈmiːd/; archaic and dialectal "medd"; from Old English "meodu"), is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, and frequently fruits, spices, grains or hops. (Hops act as a preservative and produce a bitter, beer-like flavor.) The alcoholic content of mead may range from about 8% ABV to more than 20%. The defining characteristic of mead is that the majority of the beverage's fermentable sugar is derived from honey. It may be still, carbonated or naturally sparkling, and it may be dry, semi-sweet or sweet. Mead is known from many sources of ancient history throughout Europe, Africa and Asia. "It can be regarded as the ancestor of all fermented drinks," Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat has speculated, "antedating the cultivation of the soil. Claude Lévi-Strauss makes a case for the invention of mead as a marker of the passage "from nature to culture History Around AD 550, the Brythonic-speaking bard Taliesin wrote the Kanu y med or "Song of Mead
Theory of Forms Plato's theory of Forms or theory of Ideas asserts that non-material abstract (but substantial) forms (or ideas), and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality. When used in this sense, the word form or idea is often capitalized. Plato speaks of these entities only through the characters (primarily Socrates) of his dialogues who sometimes suggest that these Forms are the only true objects of study that can provide us with genuine knowledge; thus even apart from the very controversial status of the theory, Plato's own views are much in doubt. Plato spoke of Forms in formulating a possible solution to the problem of universals. Forms The Greek concept of form precedes the attested language and is represented by a number of words mainly having to do with vision: the sight or appearance of a thing. A Form is aspatial (transcendent to space) and atemporal (transcendent to time). Meno Phaedo
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