Reward system Drugs of abuse target the brain's pleasure center. Certain neural structures, called the reward system, are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior. Rewards typically serve as reinforcers. A reinforcer is something that, when presented after a behavior, causes the probability of that behavior's occurrence to increase. Note that, just because something is labelled as a reward, it does not necessarily imply that it is a reinforcer. Reward or reinforcement is an objective way to describe the positive value that an individual ascribes to an object, behavioral act or an internal physical state. Definition In neuroscience, the reward system is a collection of brain structures that attempts to regulate and control behavior by inducing pleasurable effects. History James Olds and Peter Milner were researchers who found the reward system in 1954. Skinner box
Joseph Wolpe Joseph Wolpe (20 April 1915 in Johannesburg, South Africa – 4 December 1997 in Los Angeles) was a South African psychiatrist, one of the most influential figures in Behavior Therapy. Wolpe grew up in South Africa, attending Parktown Boys' High School and obtaining his M.D. from the University of the Witwatersrand. In 1956 Wolpe was awarded a Ford Fellowship and spent a year at Stanford University in the Center for Behavioral Sciences, subsequently returning to South Africa but permanently moving to the United States in 1960 when he accepted a position at the University of Virginia. In 1965 Wolpe accepted a position at Temple University. One of the most influential experiences in Wolpe’s life was when he enlisted in the South African army as a medical officer. Reciprocal inhibition In Wolpe’s search for a more effective way in treating anxiety he developed different reciprocal inhibition techniques, utilizing assertiveness training. Systematic desensitization Wolpe, Joseph.
Aesthetics "Aesthetician" redirects here. For a cosmetologist who specializes in the study of skin care, see Esthetician. More specific aesthetic theory, often with practical implications, relating to a particular branch of the arts is divided into areas of aesthetics such as art theory, literary theory, film theory and music theory. An example from art theory is aesthetic theory as a set of principles underlying the work of a particular artist or artistic movement: such as the Cubist aesthetic. Etymology The word aesthetic is derived from the Greek αἰσθητικός (aisthetikos, meaning "esthetic, sensitive, sentient"), which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι (aisthanomai, meaning "I perceive, feel, sense"). The term "aesthetics" was appropriated and coined with new meaning in the German form Æsthetik (modern spelling Ästhetik) by Alexander Baumgarten in 1735. Aesthetics and the philosophy of art Aesthetics is for the artist as Ornithology is for the birds.— Barnett Newman
Stress (biology) Walter Cannon used it in 1926 to refer to external factors that disrupted what he called homeostasis. But "...stress as an explanation of lived experience is absent from both lay and expert life narratives before the 1930s". Physiological stress represents a wide range of physical responses that occur as a direct effect of a stressor causing an upset in the homeostasis of the body. Upon immediate disruption of either psychological or physical equilibrium the body responds by stimulating the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. The reaction of these systems causes a number of physical changes that have both short and long term effects on the body. Homeostasis is a concept central to the idea of stress. In biology, most biochemical processes strive to maintain equilibrium (homeostasis), a steady state that exists more as an ideal and less as an achievable condition. The ambiguity in defining this phenomenon was first recognized by Hans Selye (1907-1982) in 1926. The Spinal Cord
Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms "physiological", "safety", "belongingness" and "love", "esteem", "self-actualization", and "self-transcendence" to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. Maslow's theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality. The hierarchy remains a very popular framework in sociology research, management training and secondary and higher psychology instruction. Hierarchy Physiological needs Safety needs Safety and Security needs include:
John Dollard John Dollard (29 August 1900 – 8 October 1980) was an American psychologist and social scientist best known for his studies on race relations in America and the frustration-aggression hypothesis he proposed with Neal E. Miller and others. Career Dollard studied commerce and English at the University of Wisconsin and received his B.A. in 1922. He earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago in 1931. In 1932 he became a research associate at the Institute of Human Relations at Yale University, where he conducted research for his most influential work. Dollard became a psychologist at Yale's Department of Psychology in 1942 and retired as professor emeritus in 1969. Publications Caste and Class in a Southern Town (Titikakasee, 1937)Frustration and Aggression (University of Cologne, 1961) References Jump up ^ John Dollard Papers (MS 1958).
When David Beats Goliath: The Advantage of Large Size in Interspecific Aggressive Contests Declines over Evolutionary Time Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions. For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. Figures Citation: Martin PR, Ghalambor CK (2014) When David Beats Goliath: The Advantage of Large Size in Interspecific Aggressive Contests Declines over Evolutionary Time. Editor: James A. Received: February 1, 2014; Accepted: September 2, 2014; Published: September 24, 2014 Copyright: © 2014 Martin, Ghalambor. Funding: The authors' work was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Discovery Grant RGPIN/355519-2008; www.nserc-crsng.gc.ca), a Baillie Family Chair Endowment, and a Good Family Fellowship.
Operant conditioning Diagram of operant conditioning Operant conditioning separates itself from classical conditioning because it is highly complex, integrating positive and negative conditioning into its practices; whereas, classical conditioning focuses only on either positive or negative conditioning but not both together. Another dubbing of operant conditioning is instrumental learning. Instrumental conditioning was first discovered and published by Jerzy Konorski and was also referred to as Type II reflexes. Mechanisms of instrumental conditioning suggest that the behavior may change in form, frequency, or strength. The expressions “operant behavior” and “respondent behavior" were popularized by B.F. Operant behavior operates on the environment and is maintained by its antecedents and consequences, while classical conditioning is maintained by conditioning of reflexive (reflex) behaviors, which are elicited by antecedent conditions. Historical notes Thorndike's law of effect Skinner 1.
Nathaniel Branden Early life and education Nathaniel Branden was born Nathan Blumenthal in Brampton, Ontario, and grew up alongside three sisters, two older and one younger. A gifted student, he became impatient with his studies during his first year of high school and skipped school often in favor of the library. After getting failing grades as a result, he convinced his mother to send him to a special accelerated high school for adults, and subsequently did well in that environment. After graduating from high school, Branden went on to earn his BA in psychology from the University of California Los Angeles, an MA from New York University, and in 1973, a Ph.D. in psychology from the California Graduate Institute (CGI), then an unaccredited, state-approved school whose graduates may be licensed by the state to practice psychology. (Graduates of unaccredited state-approved schools such as CGI are limited to associate membership in the American Psychological Association). Books