B. F. Skinner Burrhus Frederic (B. F.) Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher. He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University from 1958 until his retirement in 1974. Skinner invented the operant conditioning chamber, also known as the Skinner Box. He was a firm believer of the idea that human free will was actually an illusion and any human action was the result of the consequences of that same action. He innovated his own philosophy of science called radical behaviorism, and founded his own school of experimental research psychology—the experimental analysis of behavior, coining the term operant conditioning. Skinner discovered and advanced the rate of response as a dependent variable in psychological research. Biography The Skinners' grave at Mount Auburn Cemetery In 1936, Skinner married Yvonne Blue. Theory Schedules of reinforcement Air crib
Variable schedule of reinforcement — Limbicnutrition Weblog Ever wonder why those beaten and abused spouses stay with their abusers? Do you know why it is so hard to stop a gambling habit? It has to do with a bizarre trick of nature called variable reinforcement, and it can keep us trapped in behaviours for life. Schedules of ReinforcementThere is a popular misconception that if you start training a behavior by positive reinforcement, you will have to keep on using positive reinforcers for the rest of the subject’s natural life; if not, the behavior will disappear. This is untrue; constant reinforcement is needed just in the learning stages.
John B. Watson John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism. He was also not the Sherlock Holmes' assistant Watson. Watson promoted a change in psychology through his address, Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it, which was given at Columbia University in 1913. Through his behaviorist approach, Watson conducted research on animal behavior, child rearing, and advertising. In addition, he conducted the controversial "Little Albert" experiment. Early life Watson was born in Travelers Rest, South Carolina to Pickens Butler and Emma K. Despite his poor academic performance and having been arrested twice during high school (first for fighting with blacks, then for discharging firearms within city limits), Watson was able to use his mother's connections to gain admission to Furman University in Greenville, South Carolina. Dissertation on animal behavior Watson earned his Ph. Behaviorism
Applying Psychology to Understand How People Think, Work, and Relate John Dollard John Dollard (29 August 1900 – 8 October 1980) was an American psychologist and social scientist best known for his studies on race relations in America and the frustration-aggression hypothesis he proposed with Neal E. Miller and others. Career Dollard studied commerce and English at the University of Wisconsin and received his B.A. in 1922. Dollard became a psychologist at Yale's Department of Psychology in 1942 and retired as professor emeritus in 1969. Publications Caste and Class in a Southern Town (Titikakasee, 1937)Frustration and Aggression (University of Cologne, 1961) References Jump up ^ John Dollard Papers (MS 1958).
Logical Paradoxes Classical conditioning Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) is a process of behavior modification in which an innate response to a potent biological stimulus becomes expressed in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus and the potent biological stimulus that elicits the desired response. Classical conditioning was made famous by Ivan Pavlov and his experiments conducted with dogs. Classical conditioning became the basis for a theory of how organisms learn, and a philosophy of psychology developed by John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner and others. Basic Definition Classical conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus. In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is not simply connected to the unconditioned response. Procedures Diagram representing forward conditioning. Forward conditioning Learning is fastest in forward conditioning. Extinction Test
Project for the New American Century The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) was an American think tank based in Washington, D.C. established in 1997 as a non-profit educational organization founded by William Kristol and Robert Kagan. The PNAC's stated goal is "to promote American global leadership. History Statement of Principles PNAC's first public act was releasing a "Statement of Principles" on June 3, 1997, which was signed by both its members and a variety of other notable conservative politicians and journalists (see Signatories to Statement of Principles). As the 20th century draws to a close, the United States stands as the world's pre-eminent power. In response to these questions, the PNAC states its aim to "remind America" of "lessons" learned from American history, drawing the following "four consequences" for America in 1997: Calls for regime change in Iraq during Clinton years The PNAC core members followed up these early efforts with a letter to Republican members of the U.S. and that
Joseph Wolpe Joseph Wolpe (20 April 1915 in Johannesburg, South Africa – 4 December 1997 in Los Angeles) was a South African psychiatrist, one of the most influential figures in Behavior Therapy. Wolpe grew up in South Africa, attending Parktown Boys' High School and obtaining his M.D. from the University of the Witwatersrand. In 1956 Wolpe was awarded a Ford Fellowship and spent a year at Stanford University in the Center for Behavioral Sciences, subsequently returning to South Africa but permanently moving to the United States in 1960 when he accepted a position at the University of Virginia. In 1965 Wolpe accepted a position at Temple University. One of the most influential experiences in Wolpe’s life was when he enlisted in the South African army as a medical officer. Wolpe was entrusted to treat soldiers who were diagnosed with what was then called "war neurosis" but today is known as post traumatic stress disorder. Reciprocal inhibition Systematic desensitization References
SCHOPENHAUER'S 38 STRATAGEMS, OR 38 WAYS TO WIN AN ARGUMENT Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), was a brilliant German philosopher. These 38 Stratagems are excerpts from "The Art of Controversy", first translated into English and published in 1896. Carry your opponent's proposition beyond its natural limits; exaggerate it. (abstracted from the book:Numerical Lists You Never Knew or Once Knew and Probably Forget, by: John Boswell and Dan Starer) Behaviorism Behaviorism (or behaviourism), is the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only, it is also an approach to psychology that combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and theory. It emerged in the early twentieth century as a reaction to "mentalistic" psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested using rigorous experimental methods. The primary tenet of behaviorism, as expressed in the writings of John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner, and others, is that psychology should concern itself with the observable behavior of people and animals, not with unobservable events that take place in their minds. The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as thoughts and beliefs. Versions Two subtypes are: Definition Experimental and conceptual innovations Relation to language
How COINTELPRO really works and destroys social movements: Open letter from former Tea Partier to Occupy Wall Street protesters I don't expect you to believe me. I want you to read this, take it with a grain of salt, and do the research yourself. You may not believe me, but I want your movement to succeed. I wish I could believe this Occupy Wall Street was still about (r)Evolution, but so far, all I am seeing is a painful rehash of how the government turned the pre-Presidential election tea party movement into the joke it is now. I am sharing these observations, so you guys know what's going on and can prevent the media from succeeding in painting you as violent slacker hippies rebelling without a cause, or from having the movement be hijacked by a bunch of corporatists seeking to twist the movement's original intentions. Here's how they turned our movement into a bunch of pro-corporate Republican party rebranding astroturf, and this is how I predict they are turning your movement into a bunch of pro-corporate Democratic party rebranding astroturf. 2- Be image conscious. 5- Remain independent and focused.
Edward Thorndike Edward Lee "Ted" Thorndike (August 31, 1874 – August 9, 1949) was an American Psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University. His work on Comparative psychology and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism and helped lay the scientific foundation for modern educational psychology. He also worked on solving industrial problems, such as employee exams and testing. He was a member of the board of the Psychological Corporation and served as president of the American Psychological Association in 1912. Early life Thorndike, born in Williamsburg, Massachusetts, was the son of a Methodist minister in Lowell, Massachusetts. Thorndike graduated from The Roxbury Latin School (1891), in West Roxbury, Massachusetts and from Wesleyan University (B.S. 1895). He earned an M.A. at Harvard University in 1897. While at Harvard, he was interested in how animals learn (ethology), and worked with William James. Connectionism