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Comportementaliste / Behaviouriste _ SKINNER

Comportementaliste / Behaviouriste _ SKINNER
Burrhus Frederic (B. F.) Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.[1][2][3][4] He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University from 1958 until his retirement in 1974.[5] Skinner invented the operant conditioning chamber, also known as the Skinner Box.[6] He was a firm believer of the idea that human free will was actually an illusion and any human action was the result of the consequences of that same action. He innovated his own philosophy of science called radical behaviorism,[9] and founded his own school of experimental research psychology—the experimental analysis of behavior, coining the term operant conditioning. Skinner discovered and advanced the rate of response as a dependent variable in psychological research. Biography[edit] The Skinners' grave at Mount Auburn Cemetery In 1936, Skinner married Yvonne Blue. Theory[edit] Schedules of reinforcement[edit] Air crib[edit] Related:  Courants pédagogiques

Humaniste - Carl Rogers Portrait de Carl Rogers Il a principalement œuvré dans les champs de la psychologie clinique, de la psychothérapie, de la relation d'aide (counseling), de la médiation et de l'éducation. Sa méthode met l'accent sur la qualité de la relation entre le thérapeute et le patient (empathie, congruence et considération positive inconditionnelle). Cette approche a été introduite en France sous l'appellation de méthode non-directive dans les années 1950, mais Carl Rogers l'avait déjà dénommée psychothérapie centrée sur le client (« Client-Centered Therapy ») puis approche centrée sur la personne (« Person-centered Approach »). Une étude publiée en 2002 dans la Review of General Psychology a classé Carl Rogers comme le 6ème psychologue le plus important du XXe siècle[1]. Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Enfance et études[modifier | modifier le code] Les trois attitudes rogériennes[modifier | modifier le code] L'empathie (ou verbalisation) s'exprime par des messages verbaux et non verbaux. 1930.

Συμπεριφοριστικές Θεωρίες Μάθησης Irving Janis Irving Lester Janis (May 26, 1918 – November 15, 1990) was a research psychologist at Yale University and a professor emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley most famous for his theory of "groupthink" which described the systematic errors made by groups when making collective decisions.[1][2] Early years[edit] Irving Janis was born on May 26, 1918 in Buffalo, New York.[2] He received a bachelor of science degree from the University of Chicago in 1939, then received a doctorate from Columbia University.[3] Career[edit] During his career, Janis studied decisionmaking in areas such as dieting and smoking. Janis also made important contributions to the study of group dynamics. Janis wrote or co-wrote more than a dozen books, including Psychological Stress (1958), Victims of Groupthink (1972), Decision Making (1977), Groupthink (1982), and Crucial Decisions (1989).[1][3] Personal life[edit] Janis was married to Marjorie Janis, with whom he had two daughters. Selected books[edit]

Modèle social - John DEWEY Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Dewey. John Dewey XIXe siècle-XXe siècle John Dewey en 1902 Sa philosophie est d'abord marquée par l'instrumentalisme, c'est-à-dire par sa volonté de rompre avec une philosophie classique qu'il voyait comme plus ou moins liée à la classe dominante, pour en faire un instrument permettant aux hommes de mieux s'adapter au monde moderne. Dewey a participé également, en parallèle avec le Nouveau Libéralisme anglais, à la constitution de ce qui est actuellement nommé le « social-libéralisme » dont il se situe à l'aile gauche. Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Son parcours[modifier | modifier le code] Les années de jeunesse[modifier | modifier le code] Les années à l'université de Chicago[modifier | modifier le code] En 1886, il se marie à Alice Chipman, une femme d'une grande force de caractère dont il a six enfants. Maturité et postérité[modifier | modifier le code] Bibliothèque Harper de l'université de Chicago.

Educational Psychology Review, Volume 3, Number 3 Dual coding theory (DCT) explains human behavior and experience in terms of dynamic associative processes that operate on a rich network of modality-specific verbal and nonverbal (or imagery) representations. We first describe the underlying premises of the theory and then show how the basic DCT mechanisms can be used to model diverse educational phenomena. The research demonstrates that concreteness, imagery, and verbal associative processes play major roles in various educational domains: the representation and comprehension of knowledge, learning and memory of school material, effective instruction, individual differences, achievement motivation and test anxiety, and the learning of motor skills.

Stanley Milgram Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 – December 20, 1984) was an American social psychologist. He conducted various studies and published articles during his lifetime, with the most notable being his controversial study on obedience to authority, conducted in the 1960s during his professorship at Yale.[1] Milgram was influenced by the events of the Holocaust, specifically the trial of Adolf Eichmann, in developing this experiment. His small-world experiment while at Harvard would lead researchers to analyze the degree of connectedness, most notably the six degrees of separation concept. Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Stanley Milgram was born in 1933 to a Jewish family in New York City,[2] the child of a Romanian-born mother, Adele (née Israel), and a Hungarian-born father, Samuel Milgram.[3][4] Milgram's father worked as a baker to provide a modest income for his family until his death in 1953 (upon which Stanley's mother took over the bakery). Professional life[edit] References in media[edit]

Faire apprendre : vocation, profession, occupation ou passe-temps ? Il existe plusieurs appellations pour nommer celui à qui on donne le mandat de faire apprendre. Qu’on le nomme enseignant, professeur, maître, formateur, animateur, pédagogue, instructeur, moniteur ou éducateur, sa fonction est toujours essentiellement la même : amener la personne en formation à changer. Là où le bât blesse le plus souvent, c’est dans la manière d’agir de celui qui est en avant de la classe pour atteindre le but et les attentes de la formation qui fait en sorte que la raison d’être de la fonction s’en trouve dénaturée. Contrairement à la pensée populaire, être un enseignant ou un formateur compétent ne relève pas d’un don que l’on reçoit à la naissance. Il est vrai que certaines personnes ont des aptitudes à faire apprendre qui semblent nous indiquer que cela relève plus de ce qu’ils sont que de ce qu’ils savent. Faire apprendre a toujours été, et est encore, une tâche complexe. Ce n’est pas parce que c’était vrai à cette époque que cela l’est encore de nos jours.

Social Development Theory (Vygotsky Summary: Social Development Theory argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior. Originator: Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). Key terms: Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory is the work of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), who lived during Russian Revolution. Vygotsky’s work was largely unkown to the West until it was published in 1962. Vygotsky’s theory is one of the foundations of constructivism. Major themes: Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. Vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences (Crawford, 1996). Applications of the Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory For more information, see: Luis C.

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