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Cognitive distortion

Cognitive distortion
Cognitive distortions are thoughts that cognitive therapists believe cause individuals to perceive reality inaccurately. These thinking patterns often are said to reinforce negative thoughts or emotions.[2] Cognitive distortions tend to interfere with the way a person perceives an event. Because the way a person feels intervenes with how they think, these distorted thoughts can feed negative emotions and lead an individual affected by cognitive distortions towards an overall negative outlook on the world and consequently a depressive or anxious mental state. History[edit] In 1980, Burns published his book, Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy,[4] (with a preface from Beck) and nine years later published The Feeling Good Handbook in 1989. These books built on Beck's work, delving deeper into the definition, development, and treatment of cognitive distortions, specifically in regards to depression or anxiety disorders. Main types[edit] Always being right[edit] Being wrong is unthinkable.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_distortion

Related:  Cognitive Bias, Distortions & Logical FallaciesInner SearchProfound IdeasPsychologues et courants

List of cognitive biases Cognitive biases are systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment, often confirmed by research in psychology and behavioral economics . Although the reality of these biases is confirmed by replicable research, there are often controversies about how to classify these biases or how to explain them. [ 1 ] Some are effects of information-processing rules (i.e. mental shortcuts), called heuristics , that the brain uses to produce decisions or judgments. Such effects are called cognitive biases . [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Biases in judgment or decision-making can also result from motivation , such as when beliefs are distorted by wishful thinking .

Language and thought A variety of different authors, theories and fields purport influences between language and thought. Many point out the seemingly common-sense realization that upon introspection we seem to think in the language we speak. A number of writers and theorists have extrapolated upon this idea. Scientific hypotheses[edit] Examples[edit] Counting[edit] Origin of language The origin of language in the human species has been the topic of scholarly discussions for several centuries. In spite of this, there is no consensus on the ultimate origin or age of human language. One problem makes the topic difficult to study: the lack of direct evidence. Consequently, scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences from other kinds of evidence such as the fossil record or from archaeological evidence, from contemporary language diversity, from studies of language acquisition, and from comparisons between human language and systems of communication existing among other animals, particularly other primates. It is generally agreed[by whom?]

Reality tunnel Reality tunnel is a term, akin to the idea of representative realism, coined by Timothy Leary (1920–1996). It was further expanded on by Robert Anton Wilson (1932-2007), who wrote about the idea extensively in his 1983 book Prometheus Rising. The theory states that, with a subconscious set of mental filters formed from his or her beliefs and experiences, every individual interprets the same world differently, hence "Truth is in the eye of the beholder". In a chapter Wilson co-wrote with Timothy Leary in Leary's 1988 book Neuropolitique (a revised edition of the 1977 book Neuropolitics), Wilson and Leary explained further: The gene-pool politics which monitor power struggles among terrestrial humanity are transcended in this info-world, i.e. seen as static, artificial charades.

Group attribution error The group attribution error is an attribution bias analogous to the fundamental attribution error in that it refers to people's tendency to believe either (1) that the characteristics of an individual group member are reflective of the group as a whole, or (2) that a group's decision outcome must reflect the preferences of individual group members, even when information is available suggesting otherwise. The fundamental attribution error is similar in that it refers to the tendency to believe that an individual's actions are representative of the individual's preferences, even when available information suggests that the actions were caused by outside forces. Type I[edit] To demonstrate the first form of group attribution error, research participants are typically given case studies about individuals who are members of defined groups (such as members of a particular occupation, nationality, or ethnicity), and then take surveys to determine their views of the groups as a whole.

Outline of thought Nature of thought[edit] Thought (or thinking) can be described as all of the following: An activity taking place in a: brain – organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals (only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain). It is the physical structure associated with the mind. mind – abstract entity with the cognitive faculties of consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory.

Defence mechanisms A defence mechanism is a coping technique that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful impulses.[1] Defence mechanisms are unconscious and are not to be confused with conscious coping strategies.[2] Sigmund Freud was one of the first proponents of this construct.[3] Healthy persons normally use different defences throughout life. An ego defence mechanism becomes pathological only when its persistent use leads to maladaptive behaviour such that the physical or mental health of the individual is adversely affected. The purpose of ego defence mechanisms is to protect the mind/self/ego from anxiety and/or social sanctions and/or to provide a refuge from a situation with which one cannot currently cope.[9] One resource used to evaluate these mechanisms is the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40).[10][11]

Donald Winnicott Early life and education[edit] Winnicott was born in Plymouth, Devon to Sir John Frederick Winnicott, a merchant who was knighted in 1924 after serving twice as mayor of Plymouth,[5] and his wife, Elizabeth Martha (Woods) Winnicott. The family was prosperous and ostensibly happy, but behind the veneer, Winnicott saw himself as oppressed by his mother, who tended toward depression, as well as by his two sisters and his nanny.[2] He would eventually speak of 'his own early childhood experience of trying to make "my living" by keeping his mother alive'.[6] His father's influence was that of an enterprising freethinker who encouraged his son's creativity. Attribution: How We Explain Behavior In social psychology, attribution is the process of inferring the causes of events or behaviors. In real life, attribution is something we all do every day, usually without any awareness of the underlying processes and biases that lead to our inferences. For example, over the course of a typical day you probably make numerous attributions about your own behavior as well as that of the people around you.

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