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Dharma

Dharma
Dharma ([dʱəɾmə]; Sanskrit: धर्म dharma, listen ; Pali: धम्म dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism.[8] There is no single word translation for dharma in western languages.[9] The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma is a derivation from the root dhṛ, which has a meaning of "to hold, maintain, keep".[note 3] The word "dharma" was already in use in the historical Vedic religion, and its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia.[12] The antonym of dharma is adharma. Etymology[edit] The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma is a derivation from the root dhṛ, which means "to hold, maintain, keep",[note 3] and takes a meaning of "what is established or firm", and hence "law".[13] It is derived from an older Vedic Sanskrit n-stem dharman-, with a literal meaning of "bearer, supporter", in a religious sense conceived as an aspect of Rta. Definition[edit] History[edit] Eusebeia and dharma[edit] Hinduism[edit] Notes[edit] Related:  Wikipedia A

Bhagavad Gita The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit: भगवद्गीता, bhagavad-gītā in IAST, Sanskrit pronunciation: [ˈbʱəɡəʋəd̪ ɡiːˈt̪aː]; lit. "Song of the Lord"), referred to as simply the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna. The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis of the Brahmanical concept of Dharma, theistic bhakti, the yogic ideals of moksha through jnana, bhakti, karma, and Raja Yoga (spoken of in the 6th chapter). and Samkhya philosophy. The Bhagavad Gita‍ '​s call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Composition and significance[edit] Authorship[edit] The epic Mahabharata is traditionally ascribed to the Sage Ved Vyasa; the Bhagavad Gita, being a part of the Mahabharata's Bhisma Parva, is also ascribed to him.[11] Status[edit] [edit]

Krishna Krishna (Sanskrit: कृष्ण Kṛṣṇa in IAST, pronounced [ˈkr̩ʂɳə] ( According to the Bhagavata Purana, which is a sattvic purana,[6] Krishna is termed as Svayam Bhagavan since he was the purna-avatara or full incarnation of the Supreme God Vishnu.[7][8] Krishna is often described and portrayed as an infant or young boy playing a flute as in the Bhagavata Purana,[9] or as a youthful prince giving direction and guidance as in the Bhagavad Gita.[10] The stories of Krishna appear across a broad spectrum of Hindu philosophical and theological traditions.[11] They portray him in various perspectives: a God-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero and the supreme being.[12] The principal scriptures discussing Krishna's story are the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana, and the Vishnu Purana. Name and titles[edit] 14th-century Fresco of Krishna on interior wall City Palace, Udaipur As a name of Vishnu, Krishna listed as the 57th Name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Iconography[edit]

Dalai Lama The Dalai Lama /ˈdɑːlaɪ ˈlɑːmə/[1][2] is a high lama in the Gelug or "yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, founded by Tsongkhapa (1357–1419). The name is a combination of the Mongolic word dalai meaning "ocean" and the Tibetan word བླ་མ་ (bla-ma) meaning "guru, teacher, mentor".[3] For certain periods between the 17th century and 1962, the Dalai Lamas sometimes directed the Tibetan government, which administered portions of Tibet from Lhasa. The 14th Dalai Lama remained the head of state for the Central Tibetan Administration ("Tibetan government in exile") until his retirement on March 14, 2011. He has indicated that the institution of the Dalai Lama may be abolished in the future, and also that the next Dalai Lama may be found outside Tibet and may be female.[4] The Chinese government rejected this and asserted that only it has the authority to select the next Dalai Lama.[5] History[edit] Unification of Tibet[edit] Tsangyang Gyatso, the Sixth Dalai Lama, was not enthroned until 1697.

Kali Yuga Not to be confused with Kali Yug, a 1963 Italian film Current Yuga[edit] The duration and chronological starting point in human history of Kali Yuga has given rise to different evaluations and interpretations. According to the Surya Siddhanta, Kali Yuga began at midnight (00:00) on 18 February 3102 BCE[1] in the proleptic Julian calendar, or 14 January 3102 BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. This date is also considered by many Hindus to be the day that Krishna left Earth to return to his abode. Most interpreters of Hindu scriptures believe that Earth is currently in Kali Yuga. Attributes of Kali Yuga[edit] Hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually during the Kali Yuga,[5] which is referred to as the Dark Age because in it people are as far away as possible from God. References in the Mahabharata[edit] The Mahabharata War and the decimation of Yadavas thus happened at the Yuga-Sandhi, the point of transition from one yuga to another. 10,000 year "Golden Age"[edit]

Courtesan In feudal society, the court was the centre of government as well as the residence of the monarch, and social and political life were often completely mixed together. Prior to the Renaissance, courtesans served to convey information untrusted to servants to visiting dignitaries. In Renaissance Europe, courtiers played an extremely important role in upper-class society. As it was customary during this time for royal couples to lead separate lives—commonly marrying simply to preserve bloodlines, fortunes or social status and to secure political alliances—men and women would often seek gratification and companionship from people living at court. The courtesans of East Asia, particularly those of the Japanese empire, held a different social role than that of their European counterparts. Today, the term courtesan has become a euphemism to designate an escort or a prostitute, especially a very attractive and learned one who attracts wealthy clients. Categories[edit] Differences in status[edit]

Dutch Golden Age The , Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɣʌudən ˈeːw] ) was a period in Dutch history , roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade , science , military , and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. The first half is characterized by the Eighty Years' War till 1648. The Golden Age went on in peace time during the Dutch Republic until the end of the century. [ edit ] Causes of the Golden Age In 1568, the Seven Provinces that later signed the Union of Utrecht ( Dutch : ) started a rebellion against Philip II of Spain that led to the Eighty Years' War . Before the Low Countries could be completely reconquered, a war between England and Spain (the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) ) broke out, forcing Spanish troops to halt their advances and leaving them in control of the important trading cities of Bruges and Ghent , but without control of Antwerp , which was then arguably the most important port in the world. [ edit ] Migration of skilled workers to Netherlands [ edit ] Religion

Utrecht University The university is rated as the best university in the Netherlands by the Shanghai Ranking of World Universities 2013, and ranked as the 13th best European university and the 52nd best university of the world. The university's motto is "Sol Iustitiae Illustra Nos," which means "Sun of Justice, shine upon us." This motto was gleaned from a literal Latin Bible translation of Malachi 4:2. (Rutgers University, having a historical connection with Utrecht University, uses a modified version of this motto.) Utrecht University is led by the University Board, consisting of prof. dr. Bert van der Zwaan (Rector Magnificus) and Hans Amman. History[edit] This section incorporates text translated from the Dutch Wikipedia article Utrecht University was founded on March 26, 1636. In 1806, the French occupants of the Netherlands downgraded Utrecht University to an école secondaire (high school), but after the establishment of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1813 it regained its original status.

Femme fatale Convicted spyMata Hari made her name synonymous with femme fatale during WWI. A femme fatale (/ˌfæm fəˈtɑːl/ or /ˌfɛm fəˈtɑːl/; French: [fam fatal]) is a stock character of a mysterious and seductive woman whose charms ensnare her lovers, often leading them into compromising, dangerous, and deadly situations. She is an archetype of literature and art. The phrase is French for "fatal woman". Although typically villainous, if not morally ambiguous, and always associated with a sense of mystification and unease,[1] femmes fatales have also appeared as antiheroines in some stories, and some even repent and become true heroines by the end of the tale. History[edit] Ancient archetypes[edit] The divine femme fatale of Hindu mythology, Mohini is described to have enchanted gods, demons and sages alike. Early Western culture to the 19th century[edit] The femme fatale was a common figure in the European Middle Ages, often portraying the dangers of unbridled female sexuality. Sociological views[edit]

Louise Hay Louise Hay (born October 8, 1926) is an American motivational author, and the founder of Hay House. She has authored several New Thought self-help books, and is best known for her 1984 book, You Can Heal Your Life. Biography[edit] Hay often releases albums of droning music and monotone affirmations. Hay said that about this time she found the First Church of Religious Science on 48th Street, which taught her the transformative power of thought. Hay described how in 1977 or 1978 she was diagnosed with "incurable" cervical cancer, and how she came to the conclusion that by holding on to her resentment for her childhood abuse and rape she had contributed to its onset. Around the same time she began leading support groups for people living with H.I.V. or AIDS which she called "Hay Rides".[1] These grew from a few people in her living room to hundreds of men in a large hall in West Hollywood. Publishing[edit] In 1984, Louise Hay established Hay House Publishing Firm. Bibliography[edit]

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