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Hypertext Transfer Protocol

Hypertext Transfer Protocol
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.[1] HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. The standards development of HTTP was coordinated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), culminating in the publication of a series of Requests for Comments (RFCs), most notably RFC 2616 (June 1999), which defined HTTP/1.1, the version of HTTP most commonly used today. In June 2014, RFC 2616 was retired and HTTP/1.1 was redefined by RFCs 7230, 7231, 7232, 7233, 7234, and 7235.[2] HTTP/2 is currently in draft form. Technical overview[edit] URL beginning with the HTTP scheme and the WWW domain name label. A web browser is an example of a user agent (UA). HTTP is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers. History[edit] The first documented version of HTTP was HTTP V0.9 (1991).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol

Related:  7. OSI Application LayerMLDonkey (Opensource p2p Client)internet and packets

Network File System Network File System (NFS) is a distributed file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984,[1] allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network much like local storage is accessed. NFS, like many other protocols, builds on the Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call (ONC RPC) system. The Network File System is an open standard defined in RFCs, allowing anyone to implement the protocol. Versions and variations[edit] Sun used version 1 only for in-house experimental purposes. When the development team added substantial changes to NFS version 1 and released it outside of Sun, they decided to release the new version as v2, so that version interoperation and RPC version fallback could be tested.[2]

File Transfer Protocol - Wikipedia The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client using the Client–server model on a computer network. FTP is built on a client-server model architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server.[1] FTP users may authenticate themselves with a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS). SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) is sometimes also used instead; it is technologically different.

List of TCP and UDP port numbers This is a list of Internet socket port numbers used by protocols of the transport layer of the Internet Protocol Suite for the establishment of host-to-host connectivity. Originally, port numbers were used by the Network Control Program (NCP) in the ARPANET for which two ports were required for half-duplex transmission. Later, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) needed only one port for full-duplex, bidirectional traffic. The even-numbered ports were not used, and this resulted in some even numbers in the well-known port number range being unassigned.

Internet Protocol This article is about the IP network protocol only. For Internet architecture or other protocols, see Internet protocol suite. The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet. Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974; the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet protocol suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP.

Gopher (protocol) The Gopher protocol /ˈɡoʊfər/ is a TCP/IP application layer protocol designed for distributing, searching, and retrieving documents over the Internet. The Gopher protocol was strongly oriented towards a menu-document design and presented an alternative to the World Wide Web in its early stages, but ultimately HTTP became the dominant protocol. The Gopher ecosystem is often regarded as the effective predecessor of the World Wide Web. The protocol was invented by a team led by Mark P. McCahill at the University of Minnesota.

Direct Connect (protocol) - Wikipedia Hubs feature a list of clients or users connected to them. Users can search for files and download them from other clients, as well as chat with other users. The client-server (as well as client-client, where one client acts as "server") aspect of the protocol stipulates that the server respond first when a connection is being made. For example, when a client connects to a hub's socket, the hub is first to respond to the client. The protocol lacks a specified default character encoding for clients or hubs. The original client and hub use ASCII encoding instead of that of the Operating system.

Application layer Although both models use the same term for their respective highest level layer, the detailed definitions and purposes are different. In the OSI model, the definition of the application layer is narrower in scope. The OSI model defines the application layer as the user interface responsible for displaying received information to the user. In contrast, the Internet Protocol model does not concern itself with such detail. PHP PHP is a server-side scripting language designed primarily for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994,[4] the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Development Team.[5] PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page,[4] but it now stands for the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.[6] The standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License. PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on almost every operating system and platform, free of charge.[8]

Network Time Protocol NTP is intended to synchronize all participating computers to within a few milliseconds of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).[1]:3 It uses a modified version of Marzullo's algorithm to select accurate time servers and is designed to mitigate the effects of variable network latency. NTP can usually maintain time to within tens of milliseconds over the public Internet, and can achieve better than one millisecond accuracy in local area networks under ideal conditions. Asymmetric routes and network congestion can cause errors of 100 ms or more.[2][3] The current protocol is version 4 (NTPv4), which is a proposed standard as documented in RFC 5905.

BitTorrent - Wikipedia Programmer Bram Cohen, a former University at Buffalo graduate student in Computer Science,[4] designed the protocol in April 2001 and released the first available version on July 2, 2001,[5] and the final version in 2008.[6] BitTorrent clients are available for a variety of computing platforms and operating systems including an official client released by Bittorrent, Inc. As of 2009, BitTorrent reportedly had about the same number of active users online as viewers of YouTube and Facebook combined.[7][8] As of January 2012[update], BitTorrent is utilized by 150 million active users (according to BitTorrent, Inc.). Based on this figure, the total number of monthly BitTorrent users can be estimated at more than a quarter of a billion.[9]

Request–response Request–response or request–reply is one of the basic methods computers use to communicate to each other. When using request–response, the first computer sends a request for some data and the second computer responds to the request. Usually there is a series of such interchanges until the complete message is sent. File Transfer Protocol FTP is built on a client-server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server.[1] FTP users may authenticate themselves using a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that hides (encrypts) the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS ("FTPS"). SSH File Transfer Protocol ("SFTP") is sometimes also used instead, but is technologically different.

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