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Steven Pinker: The stuff of thought

Steven Pinker: The stuff of thought
Related:  Philosophy and LogicPhilosophy/ Psychology - Critical Thinking Model 1 To Analyze Thinking We Must Identify and Question its Elemental Structures Standard: Clarityunderstandable, the meaning can be grasped Could you elaborate further? Could you give me an example? Could you illustrate what you mean? Standard: Accuracyfree from errors or distortions, true How could we check on that? Standard: Precisionexact to the necessary level of detail Could you be more specific? Standard: Relevancerelating to the matter at hand How does that relate to the problem? Standard: Depthcontaining complexities and multiple interrelationships What factors make this a difficult problem? Standard: Breadthencompassing multiple viewpoints Do we need to look at this from another perspective? Standard: Logicthe parts make sense together, no contradictions Does all this make sense together? Standard: Significancefocusing on the important, not trivial Is this the most important problem to consider? Standard: FairnessJustifiable, not self-serving or one-sided Think About... State the Question

Altruism Giving alms to the poor is often considered an altruistic action. Altruism or selflessness is the principle or practice of concern for the welfare of others. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions and secular worldviews, though the concept of "others" toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. Altruism or selflessness is the opposite of selfishness. Altruism can be distinguished from feelings of loyalty. Pure altruism consists of sacrificing something for someone other than the self (e.g. sacrificing time, energy or possessions) with no expectation of any compensation or benefits, either direct, or indirect (e.g., receiving recognition for the act of giving). Much debate exists as to whether "true" altruism is possible. The notion of altruism[edit] The concept has a long history in philosophical and ethical thought. Individual variations[edit] A 1986 study estimated that altruism was half-inherited.

Logic Self-Taught: A Workbook (by Dr.P.) Logic Self-Taught: A Workbook © Katarzyna Paprzycka (dr.p) [Katazhyna Papzhytska] propositional logic, predicate logic, Katarzyna Paprzycka, Dr.P., propositional logic, Logic Self-Taught: A Workbook, sentential logic, quantifier logic, logic for dummies, logic for everybody, logic for people, logic for students, logic textbook on-line, logic textbook for WebCT, logic textbook for Blackboard, logic textbook for e-learning, natural deduction, teaching logic, logic for high-school students, logic for non-logicians, logic for lawyers, logic for philosophers, teaching to do proofs, Bergmann, Moor, Nelson, The Logic Book, Solutions to logic exercises, logic help.

Compassion Compassion personified: a statue at the Epcot center in Florida Compassion is the response to the suffering of others that motivates a desire to help.[1][2] Compassion is often, though not inevitably, the key component in what manifests in the social context as altruism.[citation needed] In ethical terms, the expressions down the ages of the so-called Golden Rule often embodies by implication the principle of compassion: Do to others what you would have them do to you.[3][original research?] The English noun compassion, meaning to love together with, comes from Latin. Theories[edit] Three theoretical perspectives of compassion have been proposed, which are contrasted by their predictions and approaches of compassion. Identifying with another person is an essential process for human beings. Psychology[edit] Compassion has become related and researched in the field of positive psychology and social psychology. Neuropsychology[edit] Medicine[edit] Fatigue[edit] Applications[edit] Practicing[edit]

Philosophy - The Dicipline of Reasoning, Logic, Knowlege and Truth for Rational Thinking Philosophy Philosophy is the discipline concerned with questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic). The word itself is of Greek origin: (philosophía), a compound of (phílos: friend, or lover) and (sophía: wisdom). Though no single definition of philosophy is uncontroversial, and the field has historically expanded and changed depending upon what kinds of questions were interesting or relevant in a given era, it is generally agreed that philosophy is a method, rather than a set of claims, propositions, or theories. Different philosophers have had varied ideas about the nature of reason, and there is also disagreement about the subject matter of philosophy. Logical Logic, Reasons for Reason, and Rationale for Rationality To Tell The Truth Truth (Part I) — Relative or Absolute? True or False?

Kindness Kindness is a virtue in many cultures and religions. The above picture is from a Laotian temple, depicting the parable of Buddha and the elephant Nalagiri. Devadutta, jealous of Buddha and wanting to hurt him, sends an angry elephant named Nalagiri into a street where Buddha and his colleagues were walking. As the angry Nalagiri approached them, Buddha's loving kindness and friendliness tames Nalagiri. The parable suggests kindness affects everyone. Buddhists call such kindness in virtuous state of perfection as Mettā,[1] while some Indian literature refer to it as maitrī (Sanskrit: मैत्री).[2][3] Other[edit] In 2009, analysts warned that 'real kindness changes people in the doing of it, often in unpredictable ways. They also argue that, in a relationship, 'real kindness, real fellow-feeling, entails hating and being hated - that is, really feeling available frustrations – and through this coming to a more real relationship'.[8] In literature[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Rules of Inference The rules of valid inference are a set of laws by which the syntax of statements in a system of logic, such as propositional or first-order logic, may be manipulated. Rules of inference are, in themselves, simple valid argument forms. They may be divided into basic rules, which are fundamental to logic and cannot be eliminated without losing the ability to express some valid argument forms, and derived rules, which can be proven by the basic rules and serve as shortcuts for logicians when constructing a logical argument or proof. Basic Rules There are, essentially, two basic rules for each basic logical operator of propositional logic (¬, ∧, ∨, →, and ↔)—one for introduction (I) of the operator and one for elimination (E) of the operator. Conjunction (∧) rules Disjunction (∨) rules Negation (¬) rules Negation introduction (Proof by contradiction, reductio ad absurdum, ¬I) Negation elimination (Proof by contradiction, reductio ad absurdum, ¬E) Conditional (→) rules Biconditional (↔) rules

Patience Patience (or forbearing) is the state of endurance under difficult circumstances, which can mean persevering in the face of delay or provocation without acting on annoyance/anger in a negative way; or exhibiting forbearance when under strain, especially when faced with longer-term difficulties. Patience is the level of endurance one can take before negativity. It is also used to refer to the character trait of being steadfast. Antonyms include hastiness and impetuousness. Scientific perspectives[edit] In evolutionary psychology and in cognitive neuroscience, patience is studied as a decision-making problem, involving the choice of either a small reward in the short term, or a more valuable reward in the long term. Religious perspectives[edit] Three virtues by Jan Saenredam after Hendrik Goltzius. Judaism[edit] Patience and fortitude are prominent themes in Judaism. Christianity[edit] In the Christian religion, patience is one of the most valuable virtues of life. Islam[edit] Buddhism[edit]