Alfred the Great: The Most Perfect Man in History? King Alfred of Wessex (r.871-99) is probably the best known of all Anglo-Saxon rulers, even if the first thing to come into many people’s minds in connection with him is something to do with burnt confectionery. The year 1999 saw the 1100th anniversary of his death on October 26th, 899, at the age of about 50. The occasion is being marked with conferences and exhibitions in Winchester, Southampton and London, but the scale of celebrations will be modest compared with those which commemorated his millenary, and culminated in the unveiling by Lord Rosebery of his statue in Winchester. Alfred’s reputation still stands high with historians, though few would now want to follow Edward Freeman in claiming him as ‘the most perfect character in history’ (The History of the Norman Conquest of England, 5 volumes, 1867-79). Alfred is someone who has had greatness thrust upon him. Alfred tried to put these principles into practice, for instance, in the production of his law-code. Anglo-Saxons!
Anglo Saxon Kingdoms language Old English English essentially began with the Germanic language of the Anglo-Saxons. The Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain constituted part of the wider Germanic invasions of the Roman Empire. The Anglo-Saxons, after the departure of the Roman Legions, overwhelmed Roman Britain and drove the Romanized Celts into the remote west. Thus the Anglo-Saxon Germanic tongue became the foundation for the English language. The Anglo-Saxon language is generally referred to as Old English and was widely spoken once the Romanized Britons had been defeated and driven into the west during the 6th century. Beginning of English English essentially began with the Germanic language of the Anglo-Saxons. Germanic Languages Anglo-Saxon Invasions The Anglo-Saxons, after the departure of the Roman Legions, overwhelmed Romanized Britons and drove them into the remote west. Old English Thus the Anglo-Saxon Germanic tongue became the foundation for the English language. Literature Old English Words Celtic Influence Latin Influence
Anglo-Saxon literature 2007 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: British History 1500 and before (including Roman Britain); Literature types The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle, likely scribed around 1150, is one of the major sources of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Anglo-Saxon literature (or Old English literature) encompasses literature written in Anglo-Saxon (Old English) during the 600-year Anglo-Saxon period of Britain, from the mid-5th century to the Norman Conquest of 1066. Some of the most important works from this period include the poem Beowulf, which has achieved national epic status in Britain. Overview A large number of manuscripts remain from the 600 year Anglo-Saxon period, with most written during the last 300 years (9th–11th century), in both Latin and the vernacular. King Alfred noted that while very few could read Latin, many could still read Old English. In total there are about 400 surviving manuscripts containing Old English text, 189 of them considered major. The poets
Middle Ages for Kids: Anglo-Saxons of England History >> Middle Ages for Kids Who were the Saxons? The Saxons were a people from north Germany who migrated to the island of Britain around the 5th century. There were actually three main peoples: the Saxons, the Angles, and the Jutes. After these people moved to Britain they became known as the Anglo-Saxons. Eventually the name "Angles" became the "English" and their land became known as England. Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms The Anglo-Saxons were the dominant peoples on the island of Britain from 550 to 1066. The first kingdom to dominate was Northumbria in the early 600s, a kingdom to the north that was settled by the Angles. Dane Invasion In the mid-800s the Danes (people from Denmark) began to invade England. Alfred the Great Prince Alfred became king in 871. King Alfred became known as Alfred the Great. Social Order At the top of the Anglo-Saxon social order were the kings. Laws and Government The Saxon king did not rule alone. The laws of the Saxons were very primitive. Legacy
Concepts of Authenticity in Early Music and Popular Music Communities | Ethnomusicology Review 22 Christopher Page published his research in a series of articles and books, beginning with “Machaut’s ‘Pupil’ Deschamps on the Performance of Music.” Early Music, 5 (1977), 484–91, and “The Performance of Songs in Late Medieval France: A New Source,” Early Music 10 (1982), 441-450. On Page and Gothic Voices and their reception in Early Music and musicological circles, see Leech-Wilkinson, The Modern Invention of Medieval Music (2002), chapter 2. 23 An interview with Renée Fleming, published in late 2003, was quoted online in January 2004: “I am the voice of Gollum - just before he dies. Appendix: some (mostly British) musicians, listed in order of birth 1920s Joan Sutherland, (b Sydney, 7 Nov 1926; d near Montreux, Switzerland, 10 Oct 2010), soprano Gustav Leonhardt, (b ‘s Graveland, 30 May 1928; d Amsterdam, 16 Jan 2012), harpsichord, organ, conductor Andrea Von Ramm, (b Pärnu, Estonia, 8 Sept 1928; d Munich, 30 Nov 1999), soprano 1930s Bruno Turner, (b London, 7 Feb 1931), choral director
The Anglo-Saxon kings > Alfred 'The Great' Alfred 'The Great' (r. 871-899) Born at Wantage, Berkshire, in 849, Alfred was the fifth son of Aethelwulf, king of the West Saxons. At their father's behest and by mutual agreement, Alfred's elder brothers succeeded to the kingship in turn, rather than endanger the kingdom by passing it to under-age children at a time when the country was threatened by worsening Viking raids from Denmark. Since the 790s, the Vikings had been using fast mobile armies, numbering thousands of men embarked in shallow-draught longships, to raid the coasts and inland waters of England for plunder. Such raids were evolving into permanent Danish settlements; in 867, the Vikings seized York and established their own kingdom in the southern part of Northumbria. Finally, in 870 the Danes attacked the only remaining independent Anglo-Saxon kingdom, Wessex, whose forces were commanded by King Aethelred and his younger brother Alfred. Read some of Alfred's own writings (pdf, 80kB)
Anglo Saxon period of history Anglo Saxon Period Anglo Saxon Period. What happened when the Romans left Britain? Find out more about the Anglo Saxons by searching the timeline, latest articles and images during these ‘dark ages’. Discover the connections and context of this fascinating period in British history. So who are the Anglo Saxons? The two hundred years after the retreat of the Roman soldiers and before the coming of the Roman missionaries is a little known period in British history but hugely important in the forming the nature of the people of the British Isles. They then sent to the Angles, and desired them to send more assistance. As communities and culture developed, so these ‘kings’ developed law codes by which to rule their people and to use in negotiations with others. The Anglo Saxons and other invaders. During the 5th and 6th century, the province of Britain was under pressure from attacks from the north, east and west. The Vikings and the Anglo Saxons ‘Never before has such terror appeared in Britain’
Anglo-Saxon England - culture and society The strongest ties in Anglo-Saxon society were to kin and lord. The ties of loyalty were to the person of a lord, not to his station. There was no real concept of patriotism or loyalty to a cause. The king's powersKings could not, except in exceptional circumstances, make new laws. King Edgar making an offering The king and religionAlthough the person of the king as a leader could be exalted, the office of kingship was not in any sense as powerful or as invested with authority as it was to become. WergeldsThe ties of kinship meant that the relatives of a murdered person were obliged to exact vengeance for his or her death. This emphasis on social standing led to an interesting court system. The role of womenAnglo-Saxon society was decidedly patriarchal, but women were in some ways better off than they would be in later times. Related: Early Anglo-Saxon Britain Also see Anglo-Saxon London in our London History section.
Anglo-Saxon literature - English and Related Literature, The University of York Overview The poetry and prose of the Anglo-Saxons stands at the beginnings of English literature. Between the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain and the Norman Conquest, Anglo-Saxon literature played a key role in the emergence of an English nation and identity and in transforming the world of writing from a Latin one to a vernacular one. Texts to be studied may include Beowulf and other heroic poetry, The Dream of the Rood and other religious writing, historical writing and The Wanderer and other lyric verse. Students will be required to purchase Peter Baker, An Introduction to Old English, 2nd edn, 2007. Aims and Objectives
Life in Anglo-Saxon England 1. Introduction The Anglo-Saxon period lasted for some six centuries, from the arrival of Germanic invaders from the continent during the early fifth century AD to the Norman Conquest of 1066. This was a time of immense political and social upheaval which saw major changes in almost all aspects of everyday life. 2. Anglo-Saxon kings were prolific legislators, and a number of law-codes survive from the seventh to eleventh centuries. 3. Life was more dangerous in Anglo-Saxon England than in modern times; and in addition to the hazards of war, feud, and capital punishment, Anglo-Saxons could be at risk from famine and epidemics, as well as from a range of endemic diseases including degenerative arthritis, leprosy and tuberculosis. 4. A substantial literature survives from Anglo-Saxon England in both Latin and Old English. Other original writings in Old English include sermons, saints’ lives and wills. 5. The main division in Anglo-Saxon society was between slave and free. 6. 7. Websites
Anglo-Saxon Culture The Anglo-Saxons were Germanic barbarians who invaded Britain and took over large parts of the island in the centuries following the withdrawal of the Roman Empire. They were initially less gentrified than other post-Roman barbarian groups such as the Franks or Ostrogoths because they had less contact with Mediterranean civilization. The Anglo-Saxons were originally pagan in religion. The main group, from northwestern Germany and Denmark, was divided into Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. German tribal affiliations were loose and the original invaders included people from other Germanic groups as well. Although some of the early Anglo-Saxon invaders had Celtic-influenced names, such as Cedric, the founder of the house of Wessex, the Anglo-Saxons had a pronounced awareness of them-selves as different from the peoples already inhabiting Britain. The early Anglo-Saxons highly valued courage and skill in battle, as reflected in the most significant surviving Anglo-Saxon poem, Beowulf.
Weekdays Names and History Weekday Names and History The influence historically of the Roman cosmology can be demonstrated in the seven names of the weekdays in Italian, Spanish, and French. These Romance language weekdays names mostly derive directly from the Latin names for the seven ruling celestial bodies. One exception is the Romance languages names for Sunday, Domencia (Italian), Domingo (Spanish), and Dimanche (French). They derive from the Latin dominus, meaning "lord." Interestingly, "Dominus" was the official title of the Emperor Diocletain (284-305 ce). In spite of the fact that English has many Latin root words, English derived from the Germanic language family group. Our modern English names for the weekdays were clearly derived from the Anglo-Saxon names. The Pagan Romans were masters of adoption, assimilation, and synchronization of religious ideas and deities. Apparently no Anglo-Saxon deity was synchronized with Saturn, lord of the harvest and "golden age." Copyright 2006 Myth Woodling
Anglo-Saxon Poetry: Characteristics & Examples In this lesson, we will review the general history of Anglo-Saxon society and its era. Then, we will look closer at the characteristics of the literature, specifically the poetry, of that era. Explore our library of over 10,000 lessons Click "next lesson" whenever you finish a lesson and quiz. You now have full access to our lessons and courses. You're 25% of the way through this course! Way to go! Congratulations on earning a badge for watching 10 videos but you've only scratched the surface. You've just earned a badge for watching 50 different lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 20 minutes of lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 50 minutes of lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 100 minutes of lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 250 minutes of lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 500 minutes of lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 1000 minutes of lessons.
The History of English - Old English (c. 500 - c.1100) About 400 Anglo-Saxon texts survive from this era, including many beautiful poems, telling tales of wild battles and heroic journeys. The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is “Cædmon's Hymn”, which was composed between 658 and 680, and the longest was the ongoing “Anglo-Saxon Chronicle”. But by far the best known is the long epic poem “Beowulf”. “Beowulf” may have been written any time between the 8th and the early 11th Century by an unknown author or authors, or, most likely, it was written in the 8th Century and then revised in the 10th or 11th Century. It was probably originally written in Northumbria, although the single manuscript that has come down to us (which dates from around 1000) contains a bewildering mix of Northumbrian, West Saxon and Anglian dialects. The 3,182 lines of the work shows that Old English was already a fully developed poetic language by this time, with a particular emphasis on alliteration and percussive effects.