Constructivist Learning Constructivist Learning by Dimitrios Thanasoulas, Greece Only by wrestling with the conditions of the problem at hand, seeking and finding his own solution (not in isolation but in correspondence with the teacher and other pupils) does one learn. ~ John Dewey, How We Think, 1910 ~ As a philosophy of learning, constructivism can be traced to the eighteenth century and the work of the philosopher Giambattista Vico, who maintained that humans can understand only what they have themselves constructed. Within the constructivist paradigm, the accent is on the learner rather than the teacher. If a student is able to perform in a problem solving situation, a meaningful learning should then occur because he has constructed an interpretation of how things work using preexisting structures. personal involvement; learner-initiation; evaluation by learner; and (see
Andragogy Knowles' theory of andragogy is an attempt to develop a theory specifically for adult learning. Knowles emphasizes that adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for decisions. Adult learning programs must accommodate this fundamental aspect. Andragogy makes the following assumptions about the design of learning: (1) Adults need to know why they need to learn something (2) Adults need to learn experientially, (3) Adults approach learning as problem-solving, and (4) Adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value. In practical terms, andragogy means that instruction for adults needs to focus more on the process and less on the content being taught. Application Andragogy applies to any form of adult learning and has been used extensively in the design of organizational training programs (especially for "soft skill" domains such as management development). Example 1. 2. 3. 4. (See computers for further discussion of this topic). Principles References Knowles, M. (1975).
Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains: The Cognitive Domain Bloom's Taxonomy was created in 1956 under the leadership of educational psychologist Dr Benjamin Bloom in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, rather than just remembering facts (rote learning). It is most often used when designing educational, training, and learning processes. The Three Domains of Learning The committee identified three domains of educational activities or learning (Bloom, et al. 1956): Cognitive: mental skills (knowledge) Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude or self) Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (skills) Since the work was produced by higher education, the words tend to be a little bigger than we normally use. While the committee produced an elaborate compilation for the cognitive and affective domains, they omitted the psychomotor domain. Cognitive Domain Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Next Steps Review
Welcome to CCK11 ~ Connectivism MOOC The Art of Teaching Science - Student Resources Reprinted with permission from Feynman, R. P. September. "I would like to say a word or two about words and definitions, because it is necessary to learn the words. In order to talk to each other, we have to have words and that's all right. To make my point still clearer, I shall pick out a certain science book to criticize unfavorably, which is unfair, because I am sure that with little ingenuity, I can find equally unfavorable things to say about others. There is a first-grade science book that, in the first lesson of the first grade, begins in an unfortunate manner to teach science, because it starts off on the wrong idea of what science is. I thought at first the authors getting ready to tell what science was going to be about: physics, biology, and chemistry. Now energy is a very subtle concept. Look at it this way. Suppose a student says, "I don't think energy makes it move." I finally figured out a way to test whether you have taught an idea or you have only taught a definition.
Constructivist Learning Theory Teaching with the Constructivist Learning Theory What is the best method of teaching to use? One of the first things a teacher must do when considering how to teach students is to acknowledge that each student does not learn in the same way. This means that if the teacher chooses just one style of teaching (direct instruction, collaborative learning, inquiry learning, etc.), the students will not be maximizing their learning potential. Obviously, a teacher can not reach every student on the same level during one lesson, but implementing a variety of learning styles throughout the course allows all the students will have the chance to learn in at least one way that matches their learning style. Much of the material used to educate students at grade levels beyond primary school is largely text and lecture based, which have significant limitations. How do students learn best? Before we answer this question, ask yourself, "How do I learn best?" (Ref: Brooks, J. and Brooks, M. (1993).
Creating Products to Show and Share Learning My students produced a lot of media, including podcasts. Before my students scripted and recorded a podcast, they would listen to several sample episodes and critique them. We would make a list of what was really good about the episode and what could be improved. Because students might have some harsh criticism of sample projects, I made sure those samples were not by students at our school. Padlet can help capture students’ observations about example media. Padlet Tip: In a wall’s Settings, click Privacy and turn on Moderation so that nothing is posted without your approval. Some questions that help guide a discussion about sample productions: What did you notice? That last question above is a good one for students to ask themselves about their own projects. What’s better than samples from the web? Seventh grade teacher Pernille Ripp has a great take on doing your own projects.
ORID It was developed by the Institute of Cultural Affairs (ICA) in Canada and involves a facilitator asking people four levels of questioning with each level building on previous levels. It's based on the theory that people need to be cognisant of the actual data and deal with their emotional responses to the topic in order to undertake better analysis and decision-making. ‘O’ stands for objective – the facts that the group knows ‘R’ stands for reflective – how people felt about the topic being evaluated. ‘I’ stands for interpretive – What were the issues or challenges ‘D’ stands for decisional – What is our decision or response. The types of questions this option answers What are the main issues of concern to stakeholders and how might they be advanced? How might a strategy / programme/ project be improved? How can the tacit knowledge of a group of people be made explicit? Full list of advantages given on The Art of Focused Conversation (p21). Advantages Advice Resources Guide Source
Constructivist Learning Design Paper Teachers and teacher educators make different meanings of constructivist learning theory. At a recent retreat with facilitators of learning communities for teachers who were studying in a Masters of Education program, we were talking about our common reading of The Case for Constructivist Classrooms (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). We asked the ten facilitators to answer this question, "What is constructivism?" The results were interesting because all of their definitions were quite different and reflected their own understanding of the term and the text. This was a clear demonstration that what we read does not produce a single meaning but that understanding is constructed by the readers who bring prior knowledge and experience to the text and make their own meaning as they interact with the author's words. This brief overview above indicates how each of these six elements integrate and work as a whole, but all need further explanation: 1. 2. A. B. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ausubel, D. (1978). Slavin, R.
World Wide Web Access: Disability Discrimination Act Advisory Notes ver 4.0 (2010) World Wide Web Access:Disability Discrimination Act Advisory Notes Version 4.0 Australian Human Rights Commission October 2010 Copyright © Australian Human Rights CommissionReproduction with acknowledgment is permitted and encouraged. A downloadable MS Word version of these Advisory Notes is also available Contents ForewordRevision History1. Foreword Individuals and organisations providing information and services via the World Wide Web need to think about how they make their websites and other web resources accessible to people with a disability. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities asserts the right of people with a disability to participate fully and independently in all aspects of society, including the internet and access to information. Access for people with a disability to the web can in almost all cases be readily achieved if best-practice solutions are implemented. Revision History Changes from version 3.2 of these Advisory Notes: 1. 2. 2.1 Introduction a.
Writing in the Wilderness Without a Guide: How <i>Not</i> to Use Journals in the College Composition Classroom By: John Levine Publication: The Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 2 Date: 2004 Summary: The proprietary value of a journal is lost on students who don't know what journals are all about. In this article, John Levine shares his struggle to direct his students toward meaningful journal writing. "In April 1992, a young man from a well-to-do East Coast family hitchhiked to Alaska and walked alone into the wilderness north of Mount McKinley. While it's true that becoming lost in a semester-long journal assignment is far less perilous than trying to survive a brutal Alaska winter, I must admit that, for some students, particularly those who have never felt comfortable as writers, asking them to keep a journal, with very little guidance from me, is akin to asking them to navigate their way through the wilderness. Ever since my graduate-school days and throughout my years of teaching college composition, I have been an advocate—no, a champion—of journals. . . . And this from Patrice: Merlin agrees:
Constructivism - Learning and Teaching Constructivism is a learning theory found in psychology which explains how people might acquire knowledge and learn. It therefore has direct application to education. The theory suggests that humans construct knowledge and meaning from their experiences. Constructivism is not a specific pedagogy. Piaget's theory of Constructivist learning has had wide ranging impact on learning theories and teaching methods in education and is an underlying theme of many education reform movements. Research support for constructivist teaching techniques has been mixed, with some research supporting these techniques and other research contradicting those results. Resources What is constructivism? Concept to Classroom > Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and LearningProvides a workshop on the concept of constructivism beginning with an explanation of the term and ending with a demonstration of how the concept can be applied in the classroom. Concept to Classroom. Examples & case studies
Typography Tutorials, Books, Web Site Typography, Web Site Fonts, CSS Fonts, sIFR, Dyanmic Image Replacement, Tutorials Within the Typography section you'll find helpful annotated links to Web site typography articles, tutorials, resources, tools, discussion lists and typography organizations, and typography book reviews and recommendations. Typography articles and tutorials topics include typography in general, Web site typography, such as choosing fonts for web sites, accessibility and typography, readability, white space, and typography, CSS, typography, and CSS typography techniques, design and typography for Web sites, image replacement techniques (IFR, sIFR, swfIR, others), and font design and creation. Do you know of some good articles, tutorials, books, or resources related to typography or fonts for Web sites? Recommendations are welcome and encouraged! Within this category: top ‘On this page’ menu Navigation below Search/Sidebar