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Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ, Ancient Greek Πέτρα) is a historical and archaeological city in the southern Jordanian governorate of Ma'an that is famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system. Another name for Petra is the Rose City due to the color of the stone out of which it is carved. The site remained unknown to the Western world until 1812, when it was introduced by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt. It was described as "a rose-red city half as old as time" in a Newdigate Prize-winning poem by John William Burgon. UNESCO has described it as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage".[4] See: UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. Petra was chosen by the Smithsonian Magazine as one of the "28 Places to See Before You Die Geography[edit] Pliny the Elder and other writers identify Petra as the capital of the Nabataeans and the center of their caravan trade. Map of Petra The narrow passage (Siq) that leads to Petra Urn Tomb T.

Derinkuyu Underground City Derinkuyu Underground City is an ancient multi-level underground city of the Median Empire in the Derinkuyu district in Nevşehir Province, Turkey. Extending to a depth of approximately 60 m, it was large enough to shelter approximately 20,000 people together with their livestock and food stores. It is the largest excavated underground city in Turkey and is one of several underground complexes found across Cappadocia.[citation needed] It was opened to visitors in 1969 and to date, about half of the underground city is accessible to tourists. Features[edit] One of the heavy stone doors. The underground city at Derinkuyu could be closed from the inside with large stone doors. The city could accommodate up to 20,000 people and had all the usual amenities found in other underground complexes[citation needed] across Cappadocia, such as wine and oil presses, stables, cellars, storage rooms, refectories, and chapels. Between the third and fourth levels is a vertical staircase. History[edit]

Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BC;[3] these, later joined together and made bigger and stronger, are now collectively referred to as the Great Wall.[4] Especially famous is the wall built 220–206 BC by Qin Shihuang, the first Emperor of China. Little of that wall remains. Other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration. Names The current English name evolved from accounts of "the Chinese wall" from early modern European travelers. History Early walls Ming era

Black Mountain (Kalkajaka) National Park Black Mountain (Kalkajaka) National Park is a 781 hectare [1]protected area in the Queensland, (Australia), 25 km south west of Cooktown. It is managed and protected as a national park under the Nature Conservation Act 1992. The main feature of the park is the mass of granite boulders, some the size of houses. The absence of soil between the boulders and rocks create a maze of gaps and passages, which can be used to penetrate inside the mountain.[2] These rocks can become extremely hot. The area has a bad reputation as numerous people and those searching for the missing have disappeared without trace. The national park's distinctive hard granite boulders and range originally formed out of magma that first slowly solidified under the Earth's crust about 250 million years ago.[3] The National Park's "Black Mountains" are a heavily significant feature of the Kuku Nyungkal people's cultural landscape known locally to Aboriginal Australians as Kalkajaka (trans: "place of spear'). Coordinates:

Christ the Redeemer (statue) Aerial view of the statue The idea of building a large statue atop Corcovado was first suggested in the mid-1850s, when Catholic priest Pedro Maria Boss requested financing from Princess Isabel to build a large religious monument. Princess Isabel did not think much of the idea and it was dismissed in 1889, when Brazil became a republic with laws mandating the separation of church and state.[6] The second proposal for a landmark statue on the mountain was made in 1920 by the Catholic Circle of Rio.[7] The group organized an event called Semana do Monumento ("Monument Week") to attract donations and collect signatures to support the building of the statue. The donations came mostly from Brazilian Catholics.[3] The designs considered for the "Statue of the Christ" included a representation of the Christian cross, a statue of Jesus with a globe in his hands, and a pedestal symbolizing the world.[8] The statue of Christ the Redeemer with open arms, a symbol of peace, was chosen.

Cueva de los Tayos Cueva de los Tayos Cueva de los Tayos (Spanish, "Cave of the Oilbirds") is a natural cave located on the eastern slopes of the Andes mountains in the Morona-Santiago province of Ecuador. It is sometimes called Cueva de los Tayos de Coangos (the Río Coangos is nearby), presumably to distinguish it from other oilbird-containing caves with similar names. Description[edit] Located at an elevation of about 800 m within thinly-bedded limestone and shale, the principal entrance to Cueva de Los Tayos is within rainforest at the bottom of a dry valley. The cave has long been used by the native Jivaro Indians who descend into the cave each spring using vine ladders and bamboo torches to collect fledgeling tayos (the nocturnal Steatornis caripensis). Von Däniken popularizes the cave[edit] The Gold of the Gods[edit] The 1976 Expedition[edit] As a result of the claims published in von Däniken’s book, an investigation of Cueva de los Tayos was organized by Stan Hall from Britain in 1976. References[edit]

Machu Picchu Machu Picchu (in hispanicized spelling, Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmatʃu ˈpiktʃu]) or Machu Pikchu (Quechua machu old, old person, pikchu peak; mountain or prominence with a broad base which ends in sharp peaks,[1] "old peak", pronunciation [ˈmɑtʃu ˈpixtʃu]) is a 15th-century Inca site located 2,430 metres (7,970 ft) above sea level.[2][3] It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Machupicchu District in Peru.[4] It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Sacred Valley which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cusco and through which the Urubamba River flows. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was built as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti (1438–1472). Often mistakenly referred to as the "Lost City of the Incas", it is perhaps the most familiar icon of Inca civilization. The Incas built the estate around 1450, but abandoned it a century later at the time of the Spanish Conquest. Machu Picchu is vulnerable to threats. History Early encounters Geography

Tahtzibichen Labyrinth Ancient Temple Originally submitted by coldrum. A slightly different article --- To enter Maya underworld, Xibalbá, a tortuous road had to be walked; at the end, according to Popol Vuh, the sacred Maya book, there was a lake with houses, where hard tests had to be accomplished. National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) and Autonomous University of Yucatan (UADY) archaeologists think they may have found this legendary route inside caves and cenotes (sinkholes). Guillermo de Anda Alanis, director of El Culto al Cenote en el Centro de Yucatan (Cult to Cenote in Central Yucatan) initiative, revealed that finding these buildings has been a pleasant surprise, as they seem to corroborate what historical sources described. “Caves have been modified to house temples probably dedicated to Xibalba cult; considering they are located in hard to reach places, buildings are complex, some shafts reaching 30 or 40 meters long.” a href="

Chichen Itza Chichen Itza (/tʃiːˈtʃɛn iːˈtsɑː/,[1] Spanish: Chichén Itzá [tʃiˈtʃen iˈtsa], from Yucatec Maya: Chi'ch'èen Ìitsha' [tɕʰɨɪʼtɕʼeːn˧˩ iː˧˩tsʰaʲ];[2] "at the mouth of the well of the Itza") was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Post Classic. The archaeological site is located in the municipality of Tinum, in the Mexican state of Yucatán.[3] Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the northern Maya lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c.AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Early Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). Chichen Itza was one of the largest Maya cities and it was likely to have been one of the mythical great cities, or Tollans, referred to in later Mesoamerican literature.[4] The city may have had the most diverse population in the Maya world, a factor that could have contributed to the variety of architectural styles at the site.[5] Name and orthography[edit] Location[edit] Political organization[edit]

Anunnaki The Anunnaki (also transcribed as: Anunaki, Anunna, Anunnaku, Ananaki and other variations) are a group of deities in ancient Mesopotamian cultures (i.e. Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian). The name is variously written "da-nuna", "da-nuna-ke4-ne", or "da-nun-na", meaning something to the effect of "those of royal blood"[1] or "princely offspring".[2] According to The Oxford Companion to World Mythology, the Anunnaki "are the Sumerian deities of the old primordial line; they are chthonic deities of fertility, associated eventually with the underworld, where they became judges. They take their name from the old sky god An (Anu).[3] Their relation to the group of gods known as the Igigi is unclear – at times the names are used synonymously but in the Atra-Hasis flood myth the Igigi are the sixth generation of the Gods who have to work for the Anunnaki, rebelling after 40 days and replaced by the creation of humans.[4] Notes[edit] External links[edit]

Colosseum The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo) is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of concrete and stone,[1] it was the largest amphitheatre of the Roman Empire, and is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and engineering. It is the largest amphitheatre in the world.[2] The Colosseum could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators,[6][7] and was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin. Name History Ancient Medieval Modern Exterior

Popol Vuh (The Mayan Bible) with its’ first inhabitants was destroyed by a great disaster. The water, the stillness, the disorder and the darkness that we see in Genesis 1:2 is the result of the first destruction by whatever means. From Genesis chapter 1, verse 2 forward, we read of a new creation, the creation of our present world. As to the previously posed question of “light”, may I suggest that as the clouds of water vapor from the first destruction dissipated, that the sun, moon, and stars of verse 14, once again cast their previous life giving light and warmth over the surface of this planet we call “home”. All of this has been said in order to give credibility to the possibility that much of the cosmogenesis found in the Popol-Vuh may in fact, have a basis in truth. In a writing of such antiquity, it is impossible to accurately separate history from legend. My Translation of the Popol Vuh Follows: (Quiché Mayan BOOK OF THE CREATION) English translation from the Spanish text by Dr. (all rights reserved, 2000)

Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal (/ˈtɑːdʒ məˈhɑːl/ often /ˈtɑːʒ/;,[2] from Persian and Arabic,[3][4] "crown of palaces", pronounced [ˈt̪aːdʒ mɛˈɦɛl]; also "the Taj"[5]) is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal is widely recognized as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage".[6] Taj Mahal is regarded by many as the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Islamic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish and Indian architectural styles.[7][8] In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Origin and inspiration Taj Mahal site plan. Should guilty seek asylum here, Like one pardoned, he becomes free from sin. The Taj Mahal incorporates and expands on design traditions of Persian architecture and earlier Mughal architecture. Tomb Northern view, from across the river Yamuna Exterior decoration

Black Mountain, Australia undefined Excerpt from branton's CAVERNS, DUNGEONS & LABYRINTHS The 'I.N.F.O. "Black Mountain comes almost as a shock when you see it first. "Traveling by bus just south of Cooktown, North Queensland (Australia), a bend in the road suddenly discloses it and the visual impact can bring an involuntary exclamation, as you see it -- black, bare and sinister, a 1,000 ft. high pile of enormous boulders two miles long, rearing out of the rain-forest. "This is 'the Mountain of Death.' "The rocks give off a curious metallic ring when struck, and the only sound is the croaking of countless frogs sheltered in the depths where the great granite boulders lie against each other. "In Brisbane's Public Library, a yellowing newspaper cutting tells some of the story: "'Grim tragedy has been associated with the mountain ever since it has been known to white man. "'Three men with horses completely disappeared at the mountain. "Another newspaper cutting, signed Nancy Francis, reads: "'I was in total darkness.

Great Pyramid of Giza The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact. Based on a mark in an interior chamber naming the work gang and a reference to fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu,[1][2] Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb over a 10 to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC. Initially at 146.5 metres (481 feet), the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years. There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. Transparent view of Khufu's pyramid from SE. History and description[edit] The pyramid remained the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years,[8] unsurpassed until the 160-metre-tall (520 ft) spire of Lincoln Cathedral was completed c. 1300. Materials[edit]