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Babylon (Arabic: بابل‎, Bābil; Akkadian: Bābili(m);[1] Sumerian logogram: KÁ.DINGIR.RAKI;[1] Hebrew: בָּבֶל, Bāḇel;[1] Ancient Greek: Βαβυλών Babylṓn; Old Persian: 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 Bābiru) was originally a Semitic Akkadian city dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire circa. 2300 BC. Originally a minor administrative center, it only became an independent city-state in 1894 BC in the hands of a migrant Amorite dynasty not native to ancient Mesopotamia. The Babylonians were more often ruled by other foreign migrant dynasties throughout their history, such as by the Kassites, Arameans, Elamites and Chaldeans, as well as by their fellow Mesopotamians, the Assyrians. The remains of the city are found in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, Iraq, about 85 kilometres (53 mi) south of Baghdad. Available historical resources suggest that Babylon was at first a small town which had sprung up by the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC (circa 2000 BC). Name History Classical dating Assyrian period Related:  book 1

Assyria Major Mesopotamian East Semitic kingdom Map showing the approximate location of the geographical region referred to as "Assyria". Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC (in the form of the Assur city-state[4]) until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC - spanning the periods of the Early to Middle Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.[5][6] From the end of the seventh century BC (when the Neo-Assyrian state fell) to the mid-seventh century AD, it survived as a geopolitical entity,[7][8][9] for the most part ruled by foreign powers such as the Parthian[10] and early Sasanian Empires[11] between the mid-second century BC and late third century AD, the final part of which period saw Mesopotamia become a major centre of Syriac Christianity and the birthplace of the Church of the East.[12] Contents Etymology[edit] Pre-history[edit]

Massagetae Asia in 323 BC, showing the Massagetae located in Central Asia. The Massagetae, or Massageteans,[1] were an ancient Eastern Iranian nomadic tribal confederation,[2][3][4][5] who inhabited the steppes of Central Asia, north-east of the Caspian Sea in modern Turkmenistan, western Uzbekistan, and southern Kazakhstan. They were part of the wider Scythian cultures.[6] The Massagetae are known primarily from the writings of Herodotus who described the Massagetae as living on a sizeable portion of the great plain east of the Caspian Sea.[7] He several times refers to them as living "beyond the River Araxes", which flows through the Caucasus and into the west Caspian.[8] Scholars have offered various explanations for this anomaly. According to Greek and Roman scholars, the Massagetae were neighboured by the Aspasioi (possibly the Aśvaka) to the north, the Scythians and the Dahae to the west, and the Issedones (possibly the Wusun) to the east. Possible connections to other ancient peoples[edit]

Pactyes Pactyes the Lydian was put in charge of the civil administration of Lydia, under the Persian satrap Tabalus. Pactyes was the Lydian put in charge of civil administration and gathering Croesus's gold when Lydia was conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia around 546 BC: Presently, entrusting Sardis to a Persian called Tabalus, and charging Pactyes, a Lydian, to take charge of the gold of Croesus and the Lydians, he (Cyrus the Great) himself marched away to Agbatana, taking with him Croesus, and at first making no account of the Ionians. For he had Babylon on his hands and the Bactrian nation and the Sacae and Egyptians; he was minded to lead an army himself against these and to send another commander against the Ionians. He led a revolt against Cyrus and Tabalus, the Persian military commander or satrap whom Cyrus had put in charge of Lydia: See also[edit] References[edit]

Culture of Iran An eclectic cultural elasticity has been said to be one of the key defining characteristics of the Iranian identity and a clue to its historical longevity.[6] The first sentence of prominent Iranologist Richard Nelson Frye's book on Iran reads: "Iran's glory has always been its culture." [7] Furthermore, Iran's culture has manifested itself in several facets throughout the history of Iran as well as the South Caucasus, Central Asia, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia. Art[edit] Iran has one of the oldest, richest and most influential art heritages in the world which encompasses many disciplines including literature, music, dance, architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stonemasonry. Iranian art has gone through numerous phases, which is evident from the unique aesthetics of Iran. The Islamic Golden Age brought drastic changes to the styles and practice of the arts. Language[edit] Map of Iran's ethnic groups and languages Several languages are spoken throughout Iran.

Harpagus Harpagus, also known as Harpagos or Hypargus (Ancient Greek Ἅρπαγος; Akkadian: Arbaku), was a Median general from the 6th century BC, credited by Herodotus as having put Cyrus the Great on the throne through his defection during the battle of Pasargadae. Biography[edit] King Astyages places Harpagos in command of his army, by Jan Moy (1535-1550). When word reached Astyages that Cyrus was gathering his forces, he ordered Harpagus, as his primary general, to lead the army against Cyrus. After a three-day battle on the plain of Pasargadae, Harpagus took his revenge for the death of his son when he turned on the battlefield in favor of Cyrus, resulting in Astyages' defeat and the formation of the Persian Empire. Myth[edit] Harpagus bided his time, sending gifts to Cyrus to keep contact with him, as he worked to turn the nobles of Media against Astyages. Harpagus in historical texts[edit] The Chronicle of Nabonidus: Military career[edit] Later life[edit] Notes[edit] External links[edit]

Astyages King Astyages (spelled by Herodotus as Ἀστυάγης Astyages; by Ctesias as Astyigas; by Diodorus as Aspadas; Babylonian: Ištumegu) was the last king of the Median Empire, r. 585–550 BCE, the son of Cyaxares; he was dethroned in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great. His name derives from the Old Iranian Rishti Vaiga, which means "swinging the spear, lance-hurler."[1] In the inscriptions of Nabonidus, the name is written Ishtuvegu. Reign[edit] The ancient sources report almost nothing about Astyages’ reign, and a final judgment on his character is not possible, since Herodotus’ negative account (Astyages is represented as a cruel and despotic ruler) and Ctesias’ favorable one, are both biased.[5] According to Cyropaedia of Xenophon, after thirty-two years of relative stability, Astyages lost the support of his nobles during the war against Cyrus, whom Xenophon understands as being Astyages' grandson. In Herodotus[edit] Astyages's dream (France, 15th century) Defeat[edit] References[edit]

Cyrus the Great Founder of the Achaemenid Empire Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, romanized: Kūruš;[5] New Persian: کوروش‎, romanized: Kūroš; c. 600 – 530 BC),[6] commonly known as Cyrus the Great,[7] and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian empire.[8] The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted about thirty years. Cyrus built his empire by first conquering the Median Empire, then the Lydian Empire, and eventually the Neo-Babylonian Empire. He led an expedition into Central Asia, which resulted in major campaigns that were described as having brought "into subjection every nation without exception".[10] Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, and was alleged to have died in battle fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC.[11][12] However, Xenophon stated that Cyrus did not die in battle and returned to the capital again.[13] Etymology[edit] Dynastic history[edit] Early life[edit] Mythology[edit] Median Empire[edit]

Cyaxares King of Media Cyaxares (Ancient Greek: Κυαξάρης; Old Persian: 𐎢𐎺𐎧𐏁𐎫𐎼 Uvaxštra;[3][4] Avestan: Huxšaθra "Good Ruler"; Akkadian: Umakištar;[5] Old Phrygian: ksuwaksaros; r. 625–585 BC) was the third and most capable king of Media, according to Herodotus, with a far greater military reputation than his father Phraortes or grandfather Deioces. He was the first to divide his troops into separate sections of spearmen, archers, and horsemen.[7] By uniting most of the Iranian tribes of ancient Iran and conquering neighbouring territories, Cyaxares transformed the Median Empire into a regional power.[8] He facilitated the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and according to Herodotus repelled the Scythians from Media.[9] The rise of Cyaxares[edit] Cyaxares' Median Empire at the time of its maximum expansion. War against Lydia[edit] Qyzqapan tomb, likely relief of Cyaxeres (detail).[1] The conflict between Lydia and the Medes was reported by Herodotus as follows: Qyzqapan[edit] Legacy[edit]

Phraortes Phraortes (from Old Persian: 𐎳𐎼𐎺𐎼𐎫𐎡𐏁, Fravartiš,[1][2] or Frâda via Ancient Greek Φραόρτης; died c. 653 BC), son of Deioces, was the second king of the Median Empire. Like his father Deioces, Phraortes started wars against Assyria, but was defeated and killed by Ashurbanipal, the king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (668 – c. 627 BC). All information about him is from Herodotus. According to him (1.102), Phraortes was the son of Deioces and united all Median tribes into a single state. He also subjugated the Persians and Parthians while still a vassal of the Assyrian kings Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, and began to conquer other nations of Ancient Iran. After a rule of twenty-two years (c. 675 – c. 653 BC), he fell in battle against the Assyrians, who reasserted their subjugation of the Medes, Persians and Parthians. References[edit] ^ Akbarzadeh, D.; A. External links[edit]

Deioces The First Legislator Deioces or Dia-oku was the founder and the first shah as well as priest of the Median government. His name has been mentioned in different forms in various sources; including Herodotus, who has written his name as Dēiokēs. Deioces' name is derived from the Iranian word Dahyu-ka-, meaning "the lands" (above, on and beneath the earth). The exact date of the era of Deioces' rule is not clear and probably covered most of the first half of the seventh century BC. Based on Herodotus's writings, Deioces was the first Median king to have gained independence from the Assyrians. Deioces' first action after coronation was to appoint guards for himself and also constructing a capital. In 715 BC, Sargon II, the Assyrian king, learned that Deioces had allied with Rusa I, the Urartian king. Etymology[edit] Deioces' name has been mentioned in various forms in different sources. Reign[edit] The era of Deioces' reign is subject to controversy. Foundation of the Median kingdom[edit]

Medes In the 8th century BC, Media's tribes came together to form the Median Kingdom, which became a Neo-Assyrian vassal. Between 616 and 609 BC, King Cyaxares (624–585 BC) allied with King Nabopolassar of the Neo-Babylonian Empire and destroyed the Neo-Assyrian Empire, after which the Median Empire stretched across the Iranian Plateau as far as Anatolia. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown.[5] A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Tribes[edit] The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangular area between Rhagae, Aspadana and Ecbatana.[7] In present-day Iran,[8] that is the area between Tehran, Isfahan and Hamadan, respectively. Etymology[edit] Mythology[edit] Archaeology[edit] Excavation from ancient Ecbatane, Hamadan, Iran Geography[edit] History[edit] "Mede."

Battle of Halys The Battle of Halys (also known as the Battle of Halys River) took place in 82 BC, during the Second Mithridatic War. Roman general Lucius Licinius Murena became very overconfident while campaigning against Pontus and ignored orders to cease operations there. He commanded two legions (the infamous Fimbrians). Murena launched two raids into Pontic territory. After receiving orders from the Senate not to continue the war, Murena launched a third raid, beginning the Second Mithridatic War. At Halys River, the Romans spared a small Pontic army under general Gordius for too long. Thales Thales of Miletus (; Greek: Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs, THAY-lees or TAH-lays; c. 624/623 – c. 548/545 BC) was a Greek mathematician, astronomer and pre-Socratic philosopher from Miletus in Ionia, Asia Minor. He was one of the Seven Sages of Greece. Many, most notably Aristotle, regarded him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition,[1][2] and he is otherwise historically recognized as the first individual in Western civilization known to have entertained and engaged in scientific philosophy.[3][4] In mathematics, Thales used geometry to calculate the heights of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. He is the first known individual to use deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' theorem. Life[edit] Map of Phoenician (in yellow) and Greek colonies around 8th to 6th century BC. The dates of Thales' life are not exactly known, but are roughly established by a few datable events mentioned in the sources. Activities[edit] Sagacity[edit]