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Babylon

Babylon
Babylon (Arabic: بابل‎, Bābil; Akkadian: Bābili(m);[1] Sumerian logogram: KÁ.DINGIR.RAKI;[1] Hebrew: בָּבֶל, Bāḇel;[1] Ancient Greek: Βαβυλών Babylṓn; Old Persian: 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 Bābiru) was originally a Semitic Akkadian city dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire circa. 2300 BC. Originally a minor administrative center, it only became an independent city-state in 1894 BC in the hands of a migrant Amorite dynasty not native to ancient Mesopotamia. The Babylonians were more often ruled by other foreign migrant dynasties throughout their history, such as by the Kassites, Arameans, Elamites and Chaldeans, as well as by their fellow Mesopotamians, the Assyrians. The remains of the city are found in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, Iraq, about 85 kilometres (53 mi) south of Baghdad. Available historical resources suggest that Babylon was at first a small town which had sprung up by the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC (circa 2000 BC). Name History Classical dating Assyrian period Related:  book 1

Dead Sea Scrolls Ancient Jewish manuscripts The Dead Sea Scrolls, also called the Qumran Caves Scrolls, are a set of ancient Jewish manuscripts from the Second Temple period. They were discovered over a period of 10 years, between 1946 and 1956, at the Qumran Caves near Ein Feshkha in the West Bank, on the northern shore of the Dead Sea. Dating from the 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE,[1] the Dead Sea Scrolls are considered to be a keystone in the history of archaeology with great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the oldest surviving manuscripts of entire books later included in the biblical canons, along with extra-biblical and deuterocanonical manuscripts that preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. Many thousands of written fragments have been discovered in the Dead Sea area. Owing to the poor condition of some of the scrolls, scholars have not identified all of their texts. Discovery Cave 1 Cave 2 Cave 3 Cave 5

Assyria Major Mesopotamian East Semitic kingdom Map showing the approximate location of the geographical region referred to as "Assyria". Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC (in the form of the Assur city-state[4]) until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC - spanning the periods of the Early to Middle Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.[5][6] From the end of the seventh century BC (when the Neo-Assyrian state fell) to the mid-seventh century AD, it survived as a geopolitical entity,[7][8][9] for the most part ruled by foreign powers such as the Parthian[10] and early Sasanian Empires[11] between the mid-second century BC and late third century AD, the final part of which period saw Mesopotamia become a major centre of Syriac Christianity and the birthplace of the Church of the East.[12] Contents Etymology[edit] Pre-history[edit]

Kumarbi Kumarbi is known from a number of mythological Hittite texts, sometimes summarized under the term "Kumarbi Cycle". These texts notably include the myth of The Kingship in Heaven (also known as the Song of Kumarbi, or the "Hittite Theogony", CTH 344), the Song of Ullikummi (CTH 345),[1] the Kingship of the God KAL (CTH 343), the Myth of the dragon Hedammu (CTH 348), the Song of Silver (CTH 364). The Kingship in Heaven[edit] The Song of Kumarbi or Kingship in Heaven is the title given to a Hittite version of the Hurrian Kumarbi myth, dating to the 14th or 13th century BC. It is preserved in three tablets, but only a small fraction of the text is legible. tablet A. The song relates that Alalu was overthrown by Anu who was in turn overthrown by Kumarbi. In another version of the Kingship in Heaven, the three gods, Alalu, Anu, and Kumarbi, rule heaven, each serving the one who precedes him in the nine-year reign. See also[edit] Hurrian mythology Notes[edit] ^ first published by H.G.

Book of Genesis The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek γένεσις, meaning "origin"; Hebrew: בְּרֵאשִׁית‎, Bərēšīṯ, "In [the] beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Christian Old Testament.[1] Structure[edit] Summary[edit] The Angel Hinders the Offering of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1635) God creates the world in six days. Later after the great flood, God divided the languages of the humans after they were deciding to live together and build a great towered city from atop of the heavens which displeased God. God instructs Abram (the future Abraham) to travel from his home in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) to the land of Canaan. Sarah is barren, and tells Abraham to take her Egyptian handmaiden, Hagar, as a second wife. God tests Abraham by demanding that he sacrifice Isaac. Composition[edit] Abram's Journey from Ur to Canaan (József Molnár, 1850) Origins[edit] This leaves the question of when these works were created. Genre[edit] Themes[edit]

Massagetae Asia in 323 BC, showing the Massagetae located in Central Asia. The Massagetae, or Massageteans,[1] were an ancient Eastern Iranian nomadic tribal confederation,[2][3][4][5] who inhabited the steppes of Central Asia, north-east of the Caspian Sea in modern Turkmenistan, western Uzbekistan, and southern Kazakhstan. They were part of the wider Scythian cultures.[6] The Massagetae are known primarily from the writings of Herodotus who described the Massagetae as living on a sizeable portion of the great plain east of the Caspian Sea.[7] He several times refers to them as living "beyond the River Araxes", which flows through the Caucasus and into the west Caspian.[8] Scholars have offered various explanations for this anomaly. According to Greek and Roman scholars, the Massagetae were neighboured by the Aspasioi (possibly the Aśvaka) to the north, the Scythians and the Dahae to the west, and the Issedones (possibly the Wusun) to the east. Possible connections to other ancient peoples[edit]

Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; Greek: Έλληνες, Éllines [ˈelines]) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.[42] In recent times, most ethnic Greeks live within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.[46] History Origins Mycenaean Classical Hellenistic This age saw the Greeks move towards larger cities and a reduction in the importance of the city-state. Roman Empire Middle Ages Modern Names

Mesopotamia Map showing the extent of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia (from the Ancient Greek: Μεσοποταμία: "[land] between rivers"; Arabic: بلاد الرافدين‎ (bilād al-rāfidayn); Syriac: ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ (Beth Nahrain): "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria and to a much lesser extent southeastern Turkey and smaller parts of southwestern Iran. Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization in the West, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory of modern-day Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires. The indigenous Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. Etymology Geography History Periodization Literature

Pactyes Pactyes the Lydian was put in charge of the civil administration of Lydia, under the Persian satrap Tabalus. Pactyes was the Lydian put in charge of civil administration and gathering Croesus's gold when Lydia was conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia around 546 BC: Presently, entrusting Sardis to a Persian called Tabalus, and charging Pactyes, a Lydian, to take charge of the gold of Croesus and the Lydians, he (Cyrus the Great) himself marched away to Agbatana, taking with him Croesus, and at first making no account of the Ionians. For he had Babylon on his hands and the Bactrian nation and the Sacae and Egyptians; he was minded to lead an army himself against these and to send another commander against the Ionians. He led a revolt against Cyrus and Tabalus, the Persian military commander or satrap whom Cyrus had put in charge of Lydia: See also[edit] References[edit]

Enûma Eliš The Enûma Eliš exists in various copies from Babylon and Assyria. The version from the Library of Ashurbanipal dates to the 7th century BCE. The composition of the text probably dates to the late second millennium BCE, or even earlier, to the time of Hammurabi during the Old Babylonian Period (1900 – 1600 BCE). Background and discovery[edit] On examination it became clear that the Assyrian myths were drawn from or similar to the Babylonian ones. Smith envisioned that the creation myth, including a part describing the fall of man must have originally spanned at least nine or ten tablets. In 1898 the trustees of the British Museum ordered publication of a collation of all the Assyrian and Babylonian creation texts held by them, a work which was undertaken by L.W.King. Dating of the Myth[edit] A bas-relief thought to be of Marduk and Tiamat from a temple at Nimrud dates the legend to at least the reign of Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC) Variants[edit] Text[edit] Tablet 1[edit] Tablet 2[edit]

Jubilees The Book of Jubilees, sometimes called Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work of 50 chapters, considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as well as Bete Israel (Ethiopian Jews), where it is known as the Book of Division (Ge'ez: Mets'hafe Kufale). Jubilees is considered one of the pseudepigrapha by Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Churches.[1] It was well known to Early Christians, as evidenced by the writings of Epiphanius, Justin Martyr, Origen, Diodorus of Tarsus, Isidore of Alexandria, Isidore of Seville, Eutychius of Alexandria, John Malalas, George Syncellus, and George Kedrenos. The text was also utilized by the community that originally collected the Dead Sea Scrolls. It was so thoroughly suppressed in the 4th century that no complete Hebrew, Greek or Latin version has survived. There is conjecture among western biblical scholars that Jubilees may be a rework of material found in the canonical books of Genesis and Exodus.

Culture of Iran An eclectic cultural elasticity has been said to be one of the key defining characteristics of the Iranian identity and a clue to its historical longevity.[6] The first sentence of prominent Iranologist Richard Nelson Frye's book on Iran reads: "Iran's glory has always been its culture." [7] Furthermore, Iran's culture has manifested itself in several facets throughout the history of Iran as well as the South Caucasus, Central Asia, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia. Art[edit] Iran has one of the oldest, richest and most influential art heritages in the world which encompasses many disciplines including literature, music, dance, architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stonemasonry. Iranian art has gone through numerous phases, which is evident from the unique aesthetics of Iran. The Islamic Golden Age brought drastic changes to the styles and practice of the arts. Language[edit] Map of Iran's ethnic groups and languages Several languages are spoken throughout Iran.

Al-Mina Ancient trading post on the Mediterranean coast of Syria Al Mina, Tyre is a spectacular and more familiar Roman site near Tyre. Al-Mina (Arabic: "the port") is the modern name given by Leonard Woolley to an ancient trading post on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria, in the estuary of the Orontes River, near Samandağ, in Hatay Province of Turkey. Archaeology[edit] The site was excavated in 1936 by Leonard Woolley, who considered it to be an early Greek trading colony, founded a little before 800 BC, in direct competition with the Phoenicians to the south. Woolley's critics point out that he discarded coarse undecorated utilitarian wares, and that the relative numbers of Greek, Syrian and Phoenician populations have not been established.[1] The controversy whether Al Mina is to be regarded as a native Syrian site, with Syrian architecture and cooking pots and a Greek presence, or as an Iron Age Greek trading post, has not been resolved.[2] Significance[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit]

Book of Enoch The older sections (mainly in the Book of the Watchers) are estimated to date from about 300 B.C., and the latest part (Book of Parables) probably was composed at the end of the first century B.C.[2] It is wholly extant only in the Ge'ez language, with Aramaic fragments from the Dead Sea Scrolls and a few Greek and Latin fragments. For this and other reasons, the traditional Ethiopian belief is that the original language of the work was Ge'ez, whereas non-Ethiopian scholars tend to assert that it was first written in either Aramaic or Hebrew; E. Isaac suggests that the Book of Enoch, like the Book of Daniel, was composed partially in Aramaic and partially in Hebrew.[3]:6 No Hebrew version is known to have survived. The authors of the New Testament were familiar with the content of the story and influenced by it:[4] a short section of 1 Enoch (1 En 1:9) is quoted in the New Testament (Letter of Jude 1:14–15), and is attributed there to "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" (1 En 60:8). Peter H.

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