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I-Tree - Tools for Assessing and Managing Community Forests

I-Tree - Tools for Assessing and Managing Community Forests
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Temperate Coniferous Forest | Biomes Temperate evergreen forests are found predominantly in areas with warm summers and cool winters, and vary enormously in their kinds of plant life. In some, needleleaf trees dominate, while others are home primarily to broadleaf evergreen trees or a mix of both tree types. Temperate evergreen forests are common in the coastal areas of regions that have mild winters and heavy rainfall, or inland in drier climates or montane areas. The understory also contains a wide variety of herbaceous and shrub species. Structurally, these forests are rather simple, consisting of 2 layers generally: an overstory and understory. Temperate rain forests only occur in 7 regions around the world - the Pacific Northwest, the Validivian forests of southwestern South America, the rain forests of New Zealand and Tasmania, the Northeastern Atlantic (small, isolated pockets in Ireland, Scotland, and Iceland), southwestern Japan, and those of the eastern Black Sea.

Glossaire | Forêt Investissement Abroutissement(s) Dégâts sur les plantations, liés à la consommation des pousses d’arbres par le bétail ou le gibier. Accompagnement (ou bourrage) Végétation ligneuse introduite ou laissée autour d'une tige avec l’objectif de gainer celle-ci. Accroissement Augmentation des dimensions et du volume des arbres. Accroissement courant en volume : Différence de volume entre deux années successives.Accroissement moyen du volume : Moyenne réalisée sur plusieurs années Accru naturel Peuplement forestier obtenu par la colonisation naturelle d’un terrain dont l’utilisation précédente a été abandonnée (déprise des terres agricoles). Affranchi Se dit d’un rejet de taillis ou d’un drageon qui, en grossissant, s’est suffisamment enraciné pour prendre son indépendance vis-à-vis de la souche-mère. Agroforesterie Système de production qui associe sur une même parcelle la culture des arbres et l’élevage ou une autre culture Amélioration (coupe d’amélioration) Aménagement forestier Amendement Andainage Arbre Assiette Cône

Glossaire de terminologie foresti re Débardeur: Engin forestier automoteur à châssis articulé, utilisé pour les opérations de débardage. Skidder Index Déboisement : Défricher un terrain forestier pour l'utilisation à long-terme (autre que la foresterie). Index Dendrologie (forestière) : Étude et identification des arbres. Dérivé/composés phénoliques : Substances organiques très complexes qui se trouvent dans toutes les plantes en concentration, dosage et rapport divers. Désertification : Transformation de régions arides ou semi-arides autrefois productives en déserts par suite d’une sécheresse prolongée ou d’un mauvais aménagement à long terme des ressources aquatiques et terrestres. Développement durable des forêts : Développement des forêts en fonction des besoins actuels sans nuire à leur productivité future, à leur diversité écologique ou à leur capacité de régénération. Dioxide de carbone :(CO2 ) Gaz incolore, inodore et incom-bustible. Domaine vital : Exigences d'espace vital d'une espèce donnée.

How tall can a tree grow? - Valentin Hammoudi As explained in this lesson, at the base of the tree the phloem sap has delivered most of its sugar and is therefore quite watery. Just next to it, the xylem sap is rich in minerals, which were mostly absorbed by the roots. This unbalanced rate of water between phloem and xylem leads to water movement from the first one to the latter one, due to a phenomenon called osmosis. Unsurprisingly, a mirrored water exchange takes place at the top of the tree. As water gets evaporated at the leaves, the pressure inside the xylem rises which creates the so-called follicular aspiration making the xylem sap move upwards. One of the additional characteristic of this circulatory system is its extreme low energy cost.

Forest certification: a small step towards sustainability It can be hard to know whether the forest products you buy have been produced sustainably. Forestry certifications were established to give a bit more certainty, but what do they really mean? When you buy a certified product, are you necessarily helping the environment? A short history of certification The two international forestry certifications - Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certifications (PEFC) - have had an interesting history over the past 20 years. According to environmental NGOs, governments failed to agree on how to address rapid deforestation, mostly in the tropics. Yet another account is that the economically poor but forest-rich tropical nations refused to bow to western NGO pressure, forcing them to take up a forestry standard that could be used as some form of trade barrier. Scholars question the role and effectiveness of international forest certifications. FSC, PEFC: what’s the difference? So how does Australia stack up?

Earth Floor: Biomes Deciduous Forest The mid-latitude deciduous forest biome is located between the polar regions and the tropics. Because of its location, air masses from both the cold polar region and the warm tropical region contribute to the changes of climate in this biome. Photo © Mid-latitude deciduous forests have both a warm and a cold season (see climograph). "Deciduous" means to fall off, or shed, seasonally. Back | Next

Deciduous Forest Deciduous biomes are located primarily in the eastern half of the United States, Canada, Europe, parts of Russia, China, and Japan. Climate The average temperature of the forest is about 50 degrees F. The average amount of rainfall in the forest is 30 to 60 inches a year. As the seasons change, so do the colors of the leaves of the deciduous. During the winter months water is generally not available to keep the leaves of some plants alive. Animals Precipitation in the temperate deciduous forest is spread throughout the year. More Pictures of Deciduous Forest Animals: Aspic Viper Cardinal Gray Squirrel Raccoon Vegetation In the deciduous forest there are many flowers like the passion berry and the blue lily. The Deciduous forest does not have much vegetation but there are many trees that contain outrageous amounts of flowers. More Pictures of Deciduous Forest Vegetation: Dog Wood Leaves Fringe Leaf Ginkgo Leaves Health Issues

Temperate Deciduous Forest The Temperate Deciduous Forest The temperate deciduous forest occupies much of the middle of the Whittaker diagram, and to those of us who live here, it sure feels that way. Rapid changes from cold and dry to wet and warm or to any of the other corners of the climate envelope are often swift and dramatic. As the diagram indicates, the average annual temperature ranges up to about 20 C down to freezing. Southern Ohio has a different feel to it. More on Forests - Forests in Europe Back International Day of Happiness You might think the International Day of Happiness is a day to practise positive thinking or to give thanks for the things in your life that make you happy. But it's actually a United Nations project which has a more serious purpose. The UN thinks happiness will only be for everyone when the people of the world are equal. Why 20 March? On this date (and also on 23 September), the centre of the sun is directly above the Earth's equator, which is called an equinox. How did the idea start? The idea goes back to 1972, when the King of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, said that we should measure a country's progress by its happiness and not just how much it produces or how much money it makes. The man behind the International Day of Happiness In 2011, a UN adviser called Jayme Illien suggested the idea of an international day to increase happiness. The World Happiness Report The UN measures and compares the happiness of different countries in the World Happiness Report. Source Why 20 March? Source