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In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu". Later, it could be used to mean "a group or regime which exerts undue influence within a society."[7] Also, it could be used for the geopolitical and the cultural predominance of one country over others; from which was derived hegemonism, as in the idea that the Great Powers meant to establish European hegemony over Asia and Africa.[8] The Marxist theory of cultural hegemony, associated particularly with Antonio Gramsci, is the idea that the ruling class can manipulate the value system and mores of a society, so that their view becomes the world view (Weltanschauung): in Terry Eagleton's words, 'Gramsci normally uses the word hegemony to mean the ways in which a governing power wins consent to its rule from those it subjugates'.[9] Etymology Historical examples 8th–1st centuries BCE 1st–14th centuries CE 15th–19th centuries 20th century

Cultural hegemony The Communist intellectual Antonio Gramsci (1891–1937) developed the theory of cultural hegemony to further the establishment of a working-class worldview. Background[edit] Etymology[edit] The etymologic and historical evolution of the Greek word hegemony, and of its denotations, has proceeded thus: Historical[edit] In 1848, Karl Marx proposed that the economic recessions and practical contradictions of a capitalist economy would provoke the working class to proletarian revolution, depose capitalism, restructure social institutions (economic, political, social) per the rational models of socialism, and thus begin the transition to a communist society. To that end, Antonio Gramsci proposed a strategic distinction, between a War of Position and a War of Manœuvre. As a result of their different social purposes, the classes will be able to coalesce into a society with a greater social mission. Intellectuals and cultural hegemony[edit] Gramsci's intellectual influence[edit] See also[edit]

Souverainism Souverainism (from the French word "souverainisme", i.e. the ideology of sovereignty) or sovereigntism is a doctrine which supports acquiring or preserving political independence of a nation or a region. It opposes federalism and approaches independentist movements. Europe[edit] In Europe, such political movements aim at a Europe of the nations, so that every country could see its independence and differences respected. Supporters of the doctrine regard themselves as Euro-realists, opposed to the Euro-federalists, and call for a confederal Europe. Souverainism is thus opposed to federalism, and some[who?] Philippe de Villiers, writing in Le Figaro on 16 February 2006 regarding the Bolkestein directive, described souverainism as "the sole reasonable economic policy" and defined it as protecting against the outsider and setting the citizens free. France[edit] The souverainiste doctrine is particularly influential in France, where numerous political movements adhere to it: Quebec[edit]

New Order (Nazism) The New Order (German: Neuordnung) or the New Order of Europe (German: Neuordnung Europas) was the political order which Nazi Germany wanted to impose on the conquered areas under its dominion. The establishment of the New Order had already begun long before the start of World War II, but was publicly proclaimed by Adolf Hitler in 1941: The year 1941 will be, I am convinced, the historical year of a great European New Order.[1] The Führer gave expression to his unshakable conviction that the Reich will be the master of all Europe. We shall yet have to engage in many fights, but these will undoubtedly lead to most wonderful victories. The New Order in Europe: German and other Axis conquests in Europe during World War II. The term Neuordnung originally had a different and more limited meaning than in its present usage. Through its wide use in Nazi propaganda it quickly gained coinage in Western media. [T]he Seven Years' War brought Prussia's confirmation as a great European power.

Le Pouvoir analyse classique Origine : Le Pouvoir 1/ Un terme polysémique Le mot pouvoir est employé dans de nombreux sens qui sont parfois proches des concepts d’influence ou d’autorité. Ces divers concepts doivent cependant être distingués (voir annexes 1 et 2 de cette fiche) Le pouvoir peut s’exercer sur la Nature, sur soi-même (la maîtrise de soi) ou sur les autres. 2/ Pouvoir, pouvoir politique, Etat De nombreuses relations sociales sont des relations de pouvoir (y compris dans la sphère privée). 3/ Puissance, domination, légitimité Max Weber a forgé un ensemble de concepts qui conservent toute leur portée heuristique. 4/ Le pouvoir comme dimension inéliminable de la vie sociale Le pouvoir apparaît comme une dimension inéliminable de la vie sociale. Dès lors, la question qui est posée est celle de la limitation des pouvoirs et l’on considère que seul le pouvoir arrête le pouvoir. Quelques citations Commentaire : NOTES (1) J.

Sovereignty Sovereignty is understood in jurisprudence as the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity.[1] It is a basic principle underlying the dominant Westphalian model of state foundation. Derived from Latin through French souveraineté, its attainment and retention, in both Chinese and Western [2] culture, has traditionally been associated with certain moral imperatives upon any claimant. Different approaches[edit] The concept of sovereignty has been discussed throughout history, from the time before recorded history through to the present day.[3][4] It has changed in its definition, concept, and application throughout, especially during the Age of Enlightenment. History[edit] Classical[edit] The Roman jurist Ulpian observed that:[8] Medieval[edit] Reformation[edit] Age of Enlightenment[edit] Definition and types[edit]

Čína je odpůrcem sankcí - Haló noviny Čínský ministr zahraničí Wang I. FOTO - Čína je odpůrcem sankcí Čínský ministr zahraničí Wang I v Moskvě ujistil svého ruského kolegu Sergeje Lavrova, že Čína je připravena posilovat finanční spolupráci s Ruskem. Čína také zopakovala, že je odpůrcem sankcí v mezinárodních vztazích... Ohledně finanční spolupráce je tu ale jeden nový malý háček... Lavrov dávným přítelem Spolupráce a partnerství Moskvy a Pekingu se podle Wanga stala důležitou oporou nejen rozkvětu obou zemí, ale i světové bezpečnosti. Šéf ruské diplomacie označil rozšiřování spolupráce s Pekingem za prioritu Moskvy. V předvečer návštěvy Moskvy čínský ministr agentuře Interfax řekl, že Čína byla a je odpůrcem sankcí v mezinárodních vztazích, protože »v praxi neřeší problém, ale naopak komplikují ho a zhoršují beztak napjatou situaci«. Nové reálie Západ uvalil na Rusko sankce v reakci na asistování při návratu Krymu Rusku a podporu proruským povstalcům na východě Ukrajiny. Albánie pohltí Kosovo (rj, čtk)

Pouvoir (sociologie) Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. r Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pouvoir. Cet article concerne le pouvoir tel que perçu dans la relation entre les individus. Le pouvoir est souvent considéré comme une relation entre des acteurs sociaux (des individus, des groupes sociaux ou classes sociales). C'est pourquoi l'on distingue deux sortes de pouvoir : Le pouvoir d'injonction reposant sur la coercition, c'est-à-dire la contrainte. Deux sources du pouvoir sont envisageables : On dira qu'un individu a du pouvoir sur un autre individu non pas en vertu de ses qualités personnelles mais en fonction du poste attribué. Le pouvoir qu'un acteur a dans une organisation est intimement relié à la défense de sa propre cause dans l'organisation. En politique, le pouvoir est la capacité à obtenir des choses et surtout des individus qu'ils se comportent comme on le souhaite. Le terme démocratie signifie étymologiquement « pouvoir du peuple ». Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Separatism For Wikipedia's meaning of separatism, see Separatism. Separatism is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. While it often refers to full political secession,[1] separatist groups may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.[2] While some critics may equate separatism with religious segregation, racist segregation, or sexist segregation, some separatists argue that separation by choice is not the same as government-enforced segregation and may serve useful purposes.[3][4][5][6][7] Motivations[edit] Groups may have one or more motivations for separation, including:[8] Governmental responses[edit] Some governments suppress any separatist movement in their own country, but support separatism in other countries. Types of separatist groups[edit] See more complete lists of historical and active autonomist and secessionist movements, as well as a list of unrecognized countries. Religious separatism[edit]

Svět v krizi, a jak z toho ven - Haló noviny FOTO - Svět v krizi, a jak z toho ven Sergej Glazjev, poradce prezidenta a akademik Ruské akademie věd, zveřejnil velmi závažnou studii o současné geopolitické situaci Ruska. V této stati jsou pojmenovány pravými jmény všechny věci, které do poslední chvíle nebyly zveřejněny mimo zdi kabinetů. Poslední kroky Kremlu dovolují předpokládat, že především na základě rozpracování této stati bude vypracována strategie rozvoje Ruska v nejbližších 10 letech. Všechny podrobnosti můžete najít v původním textu ( 1. USA doufají, že díky velké válce v Evropě úspěšně projdou probíhající krizí a tak budou moci nastoupit novou dlouhou vlnu hospodářského růstu. 2. Optimistický scénář - řízená a pro všechny země vzájemně výhodná světová globalizace - což je v současné době málo pravděpodobné. Katastrofický scénář - krach anglosaského finančního systému a rozpad světa na řadu do sebe uzavřených hospodářských oblastí - docela dobře možný scénář. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Domination Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Étymologie[modifier | modifier le code] Domination vient du latin dominus (maître, seigneur, propriétaire) et peut se décliner entre plusieurs significations voisines : [interprétation personnelle] [réf. nécessaire] la domination au sens géographique : être au-dessus (la montagne domine la plaine) ;la domination sur le plan de la position tactique : être majoritaire en nombre ou en efficacité (dans un jeu, l'équipe – qui est en avance au score – domine les autres) ;la domination (sur le plan du comportement relationnel) : expression d'une conception et d'une pratique asymétriques et inégalitaires de la relation sociale avec autrui. Acception générale (sociologie)[modifier | modifier le code] Max Weber évoque le concept de domination dans ses livres Économie et société (1921) et surtout La domination [1]. – la domination traditionnelle, – la domination charismatique et – la domination rationnelle-légale ou légale-rationnelle. Pouvoir : Thèmes liés :

Determinism Determinism is the philosophical position that for every event, including human action, there exist conditions that could cause no other event. "There are many determinisms, depending upon what pre-conditions are considered to be determinative of an event."[1] Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations. Some forms of determinism can be empirically tested with ideas from physics and the philosophy of physics. Other debates often concern the scope of determined systems, with some maintaining that the entire universe is a single determinate system and others identifying other more limited determinate systems (or multiverse). Varieties[edit] Below appear some of the more common viewpoints meant by, or confused with "determinism". Many philosophical theories of determinism frame themselves with the idea that reality follows a sort of predetermined path Philosophical connections[edit] History[edit]

People Of The World Needs To Cooperate As U.S.A Fails In World Leadership By Dr. Vivek Kumar Srivastava People Of The World Needs To Cooperate As U.S.A Fails In World Leadership By Dr. Vivek Kumar Srivastava 12 June, The recent developments in Iraq where Sunni orthodox elements have captured the Mosul and Tikrit show that all is not well in the Iraq where USA had entered to dislodge Saddam Hussein on the plea of WMD though it got nothing. Libya was described as the brightest illustration of Arab spring when Col. Afghanistan- Pakistan stories are also not much different. The rise in militancy, insurgency and conservative societies are the greatest challenge which the whole world is going to face in the years to come. The moot question is how to face these emerging challenges which are almost impacting the whole world in a highly influential manner. The social-political life of many innocents is painful. The existence of these regimes and spread of fundamentalism are two major issues which will crystallize as the major challenge. Dr.