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Tropical rainforest

Tropical rainforest
A tropical rainforest is an ecosystem type that occurs roughly within the latitudes 28 degrees north or south of the equator (in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn). This ecosystem experiences high average temperatures and a significant amount of rainfall. Rainforests can be found in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and on many of the Pacific, Caribbean, and Indian Ocean islands. Within the World Wildlife Fund's biome classification, tropical rainforests are a type of tropical wet forest (or tropical moist broadleaf forest) and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.[3] Overview[edit] Tropical rainforests can be characterized in two words: hot and wet. Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems globally due to large-scale fragmentation as a result of human activity. History[edit] Tropical rainforests have existed on Earth for hundreds of millions of years. Forest floor[edit]

Rainforest Biomes The tropical rain forest is a forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth. An average of 50 to 260 inches (125 to 660 cm.) of rain falls yearly. Rain forests belong to the tropical wet climate group. Rainforests now cover less than 6% of Earth's land surface. A tropical rain forest has more kinds of trees than any other area in the world. About 1/4 of all the medicines we use come from rainforest plants. All tropical rain forests resemble one another in some ways. Despite these differences, each of the three largest rainforests--the American, the African, and the Asian--has a different group of animal and plant species. Layers of the Rainforest There are four very distinct layers of trees in a tropical rain forest. Emergent trees are spaced wide apart, and are 100 to 240 feet tall with umbrella-shaped canopies that grow above the forest. Plant Life Besides these four layers, a shrub/sapling layer receives about 3 % of the light that filters in through the canopies. Animal Life

Mire Leftlake Mire on Dartmoor. The lake is a former quarry. A mire or quagmire, sometimes called a peatland in North America, is a wetland terrain dominated by living, peat-forming plants. For botanists and ecologists the term peatland is technically a more universal term for any terrain dominated by peat to a depth of 30–40 cm (12–16 in), even if it has been completely drained (i.e., a peatland can be dry, but a mire by definition must be wet). Because mires rely on rainwater for moisture, they are usually deficient in both oxygen and phosphorus, though they may vary widely with regard to nitrogen.[2]:p.14 These things mean that mires are a kind of " relic... Quagmire[edit] The term quagmire is a variant term for a mire, the prefix quag- having been variously written as qua-, quab-, quad-, quake-, qual-, quave-, and quaw- in the 16th and 17th centuries, and afterwards the prefixes bob-, gog-, and wag- having also been used in the same way. References[edit] External links[edit]

Animals Tasks Marsh A marsh along the edge of a small river Marsh in shallow water on a lakeshore A marsh is a type of wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.[1] Marshes can often be found at the edges of lakes and streams, where they form a transition between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They are often dominated by grasses, rushes or reeds.[2] If woody plants are present they tend to be low-growing shrubs. This form of vegetation is what differentiates marshes from other types of wetland such as swamps, which are dominated by trees, and bogs, which are wetlands that have accumulated deposits of acidic peat.[3] Basic information[edit] Marshes provide habitat for many types of plants and animals that have adapted to living in flooded conditions.[1] The plants must be able to survive in wet mud with low oxygen levels. Types of marshes[edit] A salt marsh in Scotland Marshes differ depending mainly on their location and salinity. Salt marshes[edit] Wet meadows[edit]

Plants Waste container Litter bin redirects here. For a place for pet animals to 'go to the toilet' in, see litter box. A waste container is a container for temporarily storing waste, and is usually made out of metal or plastic. Curbside dustbins[edit] The curbside dustbins usually consist of three types: trash cans (receptacles often made of tin, steel or plastic), Dumpsters (large receptacles similar to skips) and wheelie bins (light, usually plastic bins that are mobile). In some areas there is also a recycling service, often with one or more dedicated bins intended to receive items that can be recycled into new products. Bins in public areas[edit] Certain public areas such as parks have litter bins which are placed alongside paths frequently walked by visitors. Bins in outdoor locations or other busy public areas are usually mounted to the ground or wall. A Danish design company called Peoples ApS, have in cooperation with Swedish based Dynasafe AB, developed a "bombproof" bin suitable for public places.

Climate Bog Carnivorous plants, such as this Sarracenia purpurea pitcher plant of the eastern seaboard of North America, are often found in bogs. Capturing insects provides nitrogen and phosphorus, which are usually scarce in such conditions. A bog is a mire that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.[1] It is one of the four main types of wetlands. Distribution and extent[edit] Bogs are widely distributed in cold, temperate climes, mostly in boreal ecosystems in the northern hemisphere. Habitats[edit] An expanse of wet Sphagnum bog. Many species of evergreen shrubs are found in bogs, such as Labrador tea. There are many highly specialised animals and plants associated with bog habitat. Types[edit] Bog habitats may develop in various situations, depending on the climate and topography[14] (see also hydrosere succession). Valley bog[edit] These develop in gently sloping valleys or hollows. Raised bog[edit] Blanket bog[edit] Uses[edit]

Interesting Facts Effects of the automobile on societies Urban land use is often dominated by automobiles. Pictured: São Paulo, Brazil. World map of automobiles per 1000 people. Over the course of the 20th century, the automobile rapidly developed from an expensive toy for the rich into the de facto standard for passenger transport in most developed countries.[1] In developing countries, the effects of the automobile have lagged, but are emulating the impacts of developed nations. The effects of the automobile on everyday life have been a subject of controversy. History[edit] When the motor age arrived at the beginning of the 20th century in western countries, many intellectuals started to oppose to the increase of motor-vehicles on roads. W.S. Access and convenience[edit] Worldwide, the automobile has allowed easier access to remote places. Examples of automobile access issues in underdeveloped countries are: Certain developments in retail are partially due to automobile use: Drive-thru fast food purchasingGasoline station grocery shopping

Tropical Rain Forest As you can see from the map to the right, the tropical rainforests are, indeed, located in the tropics, a band around the equator from 23.5 N (the Tropic of Cancer) to 23.5 S (the Tropic of Capricorn) (red lines on map, right). Because the Earth tilts 23.5 degrees on its axis as it travels around the sun, at some point in the year (the solstices, June 22nd in the north, December 22nd in the south) the sun will be directly overhead on one of these lines. At the equinoxes the sun is directly over the equator. Within this band, solar radiation is most intense, and thus the surface of the planet warms the most. The warmth leads to a lot of evaporation, and as warm, moist air rises, it cools, the water condenses, and the water falls back to the earth as rain. Thus, the warmest areas of the planet also tend to be the wettest, and this sets the stage for the tropical rain forest. Not all of the land in the tropics is tropical rainforest.

Water Water in three states: liquid, solid (ice), and gas (invisible water vapor in the air). Clouds are accumulations of water droplets, condensed from vapor-saturated air. Video demonstrating states of water present in domestic life. Water is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H 2O. Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Chemical and physical properties Impact from a water drop causes an upward "rebound" jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H 2O: one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom. Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) and may take many different forms on Earth: water vapor and clouds in the sky, seawater in the oceans, icebergs in the polar oceans, glaciers in the mountains, fresh and salt water lakes, rivers, and aquifers in the ground.

Plants of the Tropical Rainforests Tropical Rainforests T ropical rainforests are the wettest places on earth Billions of different kids of animals and plants live in tropical rainforests The tropical rainforests have billions of species (kinds) of plants and animals, more than anywhere else on Earth. Scientists do not yet know all the species that are to be found in a tropical rainforest and new ones are still being discovered. The reason there are so many species is because rainforests are very old, some almost 100 million years old, which means dinosaurs probably lived in them. In the tropics it is always hot and it rains every day. Tropical rainforest plants Some canopy trees grow over to over 100 metres high. Many 'every day' foods originated in rainforests, including tomatoes, peppers, corn, rice, coconut, banana, coffee, cocoa, cassava (tapioca), beans and sweet potatoes. Because the weather is hot and wet, trees do not need thick bark to slow down moisture loss and have instead thin, smooth bark.