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Dopamine (contracted from 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is a hormone (also known as Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone/Factor - PIH or PIF) and neurotransmitter of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body. Its name derives from its chemical structure: it is an amine that is formed by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of L-DOPA. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine systems, one of which plays a major role in reward-motivated behavior. Most types of reward increase the level of dopamine in the brain, and a variety of addictive drugs increase dopamine neuronal activity. Several important diseases of the nervous system are associated with dysfunctions of the dopamine system. Outside the nervous system, dopamine functions in several parts of the body as a local chemical messenger.

Eloquence Eloquence (from Latin eloquentia) is fluent, forcible, elegant or persuasive speaking. It is primarily the power of expressing strong emotions in striking and appropriate language, thereby producing conviction or persuasion. The term is also used for writing in a fluent style. The concept of eloquence dates to the ancient Greeks, Calliope, (one of the nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne) being the Muse of epic poetry and eloquence. Eloquence derives from the Latin roots: ē (a shortened form of the preposition ex), meaning "out (of)," and loqui, a deponent verb meaning "to speak." Petrarch (Fracesco Petrarca), in his study program of the classics and antiquity (Italian Renaissance) focused attention on language and communication. In modern times, colloquial speech entered into presentation styles deemed eloquent. §Eloquent politicians[edit] Politicians are often termed eloquent. §See also[edit] §Further reading[edit] §External links[edit]

Anandamide §History[edit] Anandamide was isolated and its structure first described in 1992 by W. A. Devane, Lumír Hanuš et al. who were working in a team led by Raphael Mechoulam at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.[1] §Physiological functions[edit] Anandamide has been shown to impair working memory in rats.[7] Studies are under way to explore what role anandamide plays in human behavior, such as eating and sleep patterns, and pain relief. Anandamide is also important for implantation of the early stage embryo in its blastocyst form into the uterus. Anandamide plays a role in the regulation of feeding behavior, and the neural generation of motivation and pleasure. A study published in 1998 shows that anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation.[12] Some studies have linked anandamide release as a mechanism of analgesic effects induced by exercise, particularly by running.[13] In 1996, researchers discovered anandamide in chocolate. §Synthesis and degradation[edit] §See also[edit]

Système de récompense Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Le système de récompense / renforcement est un système fonctionnel fondamental des mammifères, situé dans le cerveau, le long du faisceau médian du télencéphale. Ce système de « récompenses » est indispensable à la survie, car il fournit la motivation nécessaire à la réalisation d'actions ou de comportements adaptés, permettant de préserver l'individu et l'espèce (recherche de nourriture, reproduction, évitement des dangers…)[1]. Plus précisément, le système de renforcement est constitué par trois composantes : Certains psychotropes, comme l'alcool ou les opioïdes, agissent directement sur ce système quand ils sont ingérés, inhalés ou injectés dans l'organisme. Des expériences ont montré son existence chez le poisson rouge, le marsouin, le pigeon, le rat, le chat, le singe et l'être humain, ce qui suggère qu'il existe chez la plupart des vertébrés, tels les poissons, les oiseaux et les mammifères[7]. §Définitions[modifier | modifier le code]

Cannabis and memory Much is still unknown or inconclusive regarding the precise effects of cannabis, and specifically cannabinoids, on memory.[1][2] However, some consistent data in human and animal models aid in the understanding of underlying mechanisms and behavioural effects of cannabis on memory.[1] A male cannabis plant that is growing in the wild. Cannabinoid receptors[edit] Cannabis' constituent cannabinoids, primarily delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC or THC), are believed to impair different aspects of cognitive functioning, including memory.[3] An array of research into deciphering the modes of action for cannabis on the brain in memory has been conducted and collected. There are currently two well-known cannabinoid receptors in humans and animals: the CB1 and CB2 receptors.[4] The CB1 receptor is known for its mediating effects primarily on memory and cognitive functioning. CB1 receptor knockout mice[edit] Neurotransmitters[edit] Glutamate[edit] CB1 agonists (i.e. Dopamine[edit] Hippocampus[edit]

Long-term effects of cannabis §Memory and intelligence[edit] Long term exposure to cannabis poses a risk of irreversible cognitive impairment in children and pre-pubescent adolescents; other than for the very highest of doses, no similar risk has been established for adults.[2] Negative changes in attention, psychomotor task ability, and short-term memory are associated with very recent (12 to 24 hours) marijuana use. Any long-term central nervous system effects of the residual drug are indistinguishable from variations in the user's susceptibility, or any pre-existing psychiatric disorder.[3] §Dependency[edit] Research has shown the overall addiction potential for cannabis to be less than for cocaine or heroin, but slightly higher than that for psilocybin, mescaline, or LSD.[6] §Mental health[edit] Although cannabis alone is not believed to cause psychosis, it may be a contributory factor, particularly when combined with an existing susceptibility. §Acute psychosis[edit] §Anxiety[edit] §Chronic psychosis[edit] §Lung[edit]

Reiki Traditions[edit] Today many branches of Reiki exist, though there exist two major traditions, respectively called Traditional Japanese Reiki and Western Reiki. Traditional Japanese Reiki[edit] The term Traditional Japanese Reiki is normally used to describe the specific system that formed from Usui's original teachings[41] and the teachings that did not leave Japan. During the 1990s, Western teachers travelled to Japan in order to find this particular tradition of Reiki, though found nothing. They therefore started to establish Reiki schools, and started to teach Reiki levels 1 and 2 to the Japanese. Usui Reiki Ryōhō Gakkai (臼井靈氣療法學會 in Traditional Chinese Characters, meaning "Usui Reiki Healing Method Learning Society")[43] is the name of the society of Reiki masters founded by Mikao Usui. Western Reiki[edit] After being trained by Hayashi, Takata went back to Hawaii, taking Reiki with her. Teachings[edit] Training[edit] First degree[edit] Second degree[edit] Third degree[edit] Practice[edit]

Bodywork (alternative medicine) Any alternative therapy involving physically working with the body The better known forms of manipulative bodywork include the Bowen technique, chiropractic, reflexology, Rolfing, postural integration, shiatsu, and the Trager approach. There are also some methods that use light touch (not tissue work) to retrain movement patterns or shift awareness of the body, including the Alexander technique, the Feldenkrais method, the Hakomi method, integrative body psychotherapy, craniosacral therapy, and somatic experiencing. Kinesiology Study of human body movement Kinesiology (from Ancient Greek κίνησις (kínēsis) 'movement', and -λογία -logía 'study of') is the scientific study of human body movement. Kinesiology addresses physiological, anatomical, biomechanical, pathological, neuropsychological principles and mechanisms of movement. Basics[edit] Kinesiology studies the science of human movement, performance, and function by applying the fundamental sciences of Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Biomechanics, Biomathematics, Biostatistics, Anatomy, Physiology, Exercise Physiology, Pathophysiology, Neuroscience, and Nutritional science. The term "kinesiologist" is not a licensed nor professional designation in many countries, with the notable exception of Canada. Principles[edit] Adaptation through exercise[edit] Adaptation through exercise is a key principle of kinesiology that relates to improved fitness in athletes as well as health and wellness in clinical populations. Ergonomics

Feldenkrais Method Feldenkrais illustrating the function of the human skeleton in sitting. The Feldenkrais Method, often referred to simply as "Feldenkrais", is a somatic educational system designed by Moshé Feldenkrais (1904–1984). Feldenkrais aims to reduce pain or limitations in movement, to improve physical function, and to promote general wellbeing by increasing students' awareness of themselves and by expanding students' movement repertoire. Approach[edit] Feldenkrais taught that increasing a person's kinesthetic and proprioceptive self-awareness of functional movement could lead to increased function, reduced pain, and greater ease and pleasure of movement. Moshé Feldenkrais (pictured bottom) practising Judo, one of the major influences on his work. Feldenkrais is used to improve movement patterns rather than to treat specific injuries or illnesses. Feldenkrais demonstrating Functional Integration Scientific studies[edit] Certification by Feldenkrais Guild[edit] References[edit] Sources[edit]

Rolfing Form of alternative medicine Rolfing is typically delivered as a series of ten hands-on physical manipulation sessions sometimes called "the recipe". Practitioners combine superficial and deep manual therapy with movement prompts.[8] The process is sometimes painful.[5] The safety of Rolfing has not been confirmed.[9] The principles of Rolfing contradict established medical knowledge,[10] and there is no good evidence Rolfing is effective for the treatment of any health condition.[9] It is recognized as a pseudoscience[11] and has been characterized as quackery.[12][4] Conceptual basis[edit] Science writer Edzard Ernst offers this definition: "Rolfing is a system of bodywork invented by Ida Pauline Rolf (1896–1979) employing deep manipulation of the body's soft tissue allegedly to realign and balance the body's myofascial structures Technique[edit] A session typically lasts between 60 and 90 minutes. Effectiveness and reception[edit] History[edit] The Field of Structural Integration[edit]