Cost of electricity by source Cost factors While calculating costs, several internal cost factors have to be considered. (Note the use of "costs," which is not the actual selling price, since this can be affected by a variety of factors such as subsidies and taxes): Capital costs (including waste disposal and decommissioning costs for nuclear energy) - tend to be low for fossil fuel power stations; high for wind turbines, solar PV; very high for waste to energy, wave and tidal, solar thermal, and nuclear.Fuel costs - high for fossil fuel and biomass sources, low for nuclear, and zero for many renewables.Factors such as the costs of waste (and associated issues) and different insurance costs are not included in the following: Works power, own use or parasitic load - that is, the portion of generated power actually used to run the stations pumps and fans has to be allowed for.
Biochar Biochar created through the pyrolysis process. History Left - a nutrient-poor oxisol; right - an oxisol transformed into fertile terra preta using biochar Pre-Columbian Amazonians are believed to have used biochar to enhance soil productivity. Global Warming Frequently Asked Questions IntroductionGreen House EffectGreen House GasesGlobal TemperaturesEl NiñoOcean Heat ContentSea Level RiseHydrological CycleCryosphereClimate Variability and ExtremesHistorical ContextNatural VariabilityU.S. ClimateFuture Climate ProjectionsAdditional Resources Introduction This page is based on a brief synopsis of the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as NCDC's own data resources. It was prepared by David Easterling and Tom Karl, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, N.C. 28801.
Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere Carbon dioxide is essential to life on Earth and is an integral part of the carbon cycle which interacts with the Earth's oceans, soil, rocks and biosphere. Biologically, plants and other photoautotrophs extract the carbon from the atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis and use it as an energy source and for the construction of their body parts. Therefore, Earth wouldn't have a present-day biosphere without atmospheric CO2. Carbon dioxide is well mixed in the Earth's atmosphere and reconstructions show that concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere varied from as high as 7,000 parts per million during the Cambrian period about 500 million years ago in ancient-Earth biospheres to as low as 180 parts per million during the Quaternary glaciation of the last two million years.
Environmental concerns with electricity generation The environmental impact of electricity generation is significant because modern society uses large amounts of electrical power. This power is normally generated at power plants that convert some other kind of energy into electrical power. Each system has advantages and disadvantages, but many of them pose environmental concerns. Water usage Carbon cycle re-balancing The carbon cycle is the process by which carbon is exchanged between the four reservoirs of carbon: the biosphere, the earth, the air and water. Exchanges take place in several ways, including respiration, transpiration, combustion, and decomposition. The carbon balance, or carbon budget, is the balance of exchange between the four reservoirs. Debate about 're-balancing the carbon cycle' arises from a concern that use of fossil fuels, which has accelerated since the start of the industrial revolution, has caused carbon to accumulate in the atmosphere. Levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are estimated to have risen from 280 ppm to almost 400 ppm since 1800 and this is linked to global warming. It is therefore argued that the carbon cycle should be re-balanced by reducing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Science Science[nb 1]:58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[nb 2] Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences, which study the material universe; the social sciences, which study people and societies; and the formal sciences, which study logic and mathematics. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may also be considered to be applied sciences. Frequently asked questions — ZeroCO2 - About Carbon Capture and Storage What is CCS? How is CO2 captured? How is CO2 transported? How is CO2 stored? I've heard CO2 can be stored in water too. How does that work?
Intermittent energy source An intermittent energy source is any source of energy that is not continuously available due to some factor outside direct control. The intermittent source may be quite predictable, for example, tidal power, but cannot be dispatched to meet the demand of a power system. Effective use of intermittent sources in an electric power grid usually relies on using the intermittent sources to displace fuel that would otherwise be consumed by non-renewable power stations, or by storing energy in the form of renewable pumped storage, compressed air or ice, for use when needed, or as electrode heating for district heating schemes. The use of small amounts of intermittent power has little effect on grid operations.
Carbon footprint The carbon footprint explained A carbon footprint is historically defined as "the total sets of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event, product or individual." History of climate change science The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century when ice ages and other natural changes in paleoclimate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect first identified. In the late 19th century, scientists first argued that human emissions of greenhouse gases could change the climate. Many other theories of climate change were advanced, involving forces from volcanism to solar variation. In the 1960s, the warming effect of carbon dioxide gas became increasingly convincing, although some scientists also pointed out that human activities, in the form of atmospheric aerosols (e.g., "pollution"), could have cooling effects as well. During the 1970s, scientific opinion increasingly favored the warming viewpoint.
Citizens Against CO2 Sequestration: WARNING - CO2 Sequestration Danger - What goes into the ground is NOT bubbles or carbonation! It is supercritical CO2 and carries a lot of risks - The full article is here - some excerpts from the article are below Health hazards from CO2 "At room temperature and ambient pressure, CO2 is a colourless, odourless gas that supports neither combustion nor life. Renewable Energy Used to Make Drinking Water From Air Humidity – Blue Living Ideas Availability Published on June 18th, 2009 | by Jennifer Lance Scientists have discovered a way to make drinking water from the air’s humidity, even in arid regions.Â The system completely uses renewable energy and could provide water for many applications. Models have been built and tested in laboratories at the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB in Stuttgart. Image by hamed saber Scientists can make drinking water from desert air.
Carbon diet A carbon diet refers to reducing the impact on climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (principally CO2) production. Individuals and businesses produce carbon dioxide from daily activities such as driving, heating, and the consumption of products and services. To reduce the effects of climate change, we could reduce our carbon output by going on a carbon diet. There are references to the use of the term carbon diet in several publications. The term "carbon diet" is used in the book Gore: A Political Life