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Lysergic acid diethylamide

Lysergic acid diethylamide
Lysergic acid diethylamide, abbreviated LSD or LSD-25, also known as lysergide (INN) and colloquially as acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug of the ergoline family, well known for its psychological effects which can include altered thinking processes, closed- and open-eye visuals, synesthesia, an altered sense of time and spiritual experiences, as well as for its key role in 1960s counterculture. It is used mainly as an entheogen, recreational drug, and as an agent in psychedelic therapy. LSD is non-addictive, is not known to cause brain damage, and has extremely low toxicity relative to dose.[3] However, acute adverse psychiatric reactions such as anxiety, paranoia, and delusions are possible.[4] LSD was first synthesized by Albert Hofmann in 1938 from ergotamine, a chemical derived by Arthur Stoll from ergot, a grain fungus that typically grows on rye. Effects Physical LSD can cause pupil dilation, reduced or increased appetite, and wakefulness. Psychological Sensory Potential uses

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysergic_acid_diethylamide

Related:  Psychoactive AlkaloidsHallucinogen

Indole alkaloid History[edit] The action of some indole alkaloids has been known for ages. Aztecs used the psilocybin mushrooms which contain alkaloids psilocybin and psilocin. Dissociative Classes of dissociatives[edit] NMDA receptor antagonists[edit] κ-opioid receptor agonists[edit] Effects[edit] The effects of dissociatives can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia.[9][10][11] The characteristic features of dissociative anesthesia were described as catalepsy, amnesia and analgesia.[9] According to Pender (1972), "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient truly seems disassociated from his environment Merry Pranksters The Merry Pranksters were a group of people who formed around American author Ken Kesey in 1964. The group promoted the use of psychedelic drugs. Eastward bus journey[edit]

The Forgetting Pill Erases Painful Memories Forever Photo: Dwight Eschliman Jeffrey Mitchell, a volunteer firefighter in the suburbs of Baltimore, came across the accident by chance: A car had smashed into a pickup truck loaded with metal pipes. Mitchell tried to help, but he saw at once that he was too late. The car had rear-ended the truck at high speed, sending a pipe through the windshield and into the chest of the passenger—a young bride returning home from her wedding. There was blood everywhere, staining her white dress crimson. Atropine In general, atropine counters the "rest and digest" activity of glands regulated by the parasympathetic nervous system. This occurs because atropine is a competitive antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (acetylcholine being the main neurotransmitter used by the parasympathetic nervous system). Atropine dilates the pupils, increases heart rate, and reduces salivation and other secretions. Atropine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system.[1] Name[edit]

Nuciferine References[edit] Jump up ^ Bhattacharya SK, Bose R, Ghosh P, Tripathi VJ, Ray AB, Dasgupta B (Sep 1978). "Psychopharmacological studies on (—)-nuciferine and its Hofmann degradation product atherosperminine". NMDA receptor antagonist Ketamine, one of the most common NMDA receptor antagonists. NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). They are used as anesthetics for animals and for humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative anesthesia. There is evidence that NMDA receptor antagonists can cause a certain type of neurotoxicity or brain damage referred to as Olney's Lesions in rodents, although such damage has never been conclusively observed in primates like humans. Recent research conducted on primates suggests that, while very consistent and long-term ketamine use may be neurotoxic, acute use is not.[1][2] Several synthetic opioids function additionally as NMDAR-antagonists, such as pethidine, methadone, dextropropoxyphene, tramadol and ketobemidone.

Jackson Pollock's "Psychoanalytic Drawings" Until recently the psychoanalysis of art was restricted to dead artists. In the hands of Freud, retrospective analysis was an extension of the 19th-century idea of art as a means of contact with great minds. For all the distressing symptoms that he detected in Leonardo, Freud's view of artists was essentially old-fashioned and ennobling. Subsequent psychoanalysts possessed neither Freud's tact nor his sense of the continuum of culture, with the result that crude post-mortems on absent heads flourished.

The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test Plot[edit] Tom Wolfe chronicles the adventures of Ken Kesey and his group of followers. Throughout the work, Kesey is painted as a sort of Christ figure, someone starting a new religion. Due to the allure of the transcendent states achievable through drugs and because of Kesey's ability to preach and captivate listeners, he begins to form a band of close followers. They call themselves the "Merry Pranksters" and begin to participate in the drug-fueled lifestyle. Starting at Kesey's house in the woods of La Honda, California, the early predecessors of acid tests were performed. Methysergide Methysergide (1-methyl-D-lysergic acid butanolamide or UML-491) is a prescription drug formerly used for prophylaxis of cluster headaches/migraine headaches, but is no longer recommended due to retroperitoneal/retropulmonary fibrosis. Medical uses[edit] Methysergide is used to treat headaches such as migraine and other recurrent throbbing headaches.[1] Methysergide is one of the most effective[2] medications for the prevention of migraine, but not for the treatment of an acute attack. It is also used in carcinoid syndrome to treat severe diarrhea.[1] It may also be used in the treatment of serotonin syndrome.[3] Side effects[edit] It has a known side effect, retroperitoneal fibrosis,[4] which is severe, although uncommon.

Aporphine Aporphine is one of a class of quinoline alkaloids. Many different relatives of this compound have been purified from plants.[1] One commonly used aporphine derivative is apomorphine, although it does not occur naturally. Aporphine is a 5-HT1a partial agonist with a ki of 80nM and a 5-HT7 antagonist with a ki of 88nM.[2] Aporphine is a Dopamine D1 antagonist with a ki of 717nM[3] and a dopamine D2 antagonist with a ki of 527nM.[4] Aporphine and its related alkaloids bulbocapnine, boldine, glaucine and corytuberine are antipsychotic, exert naloxone-reversible antinociceptive activity and with the exception of corytuberine are anticonvulsant.[5] Some derivatives of aporphine such as S(+)-N-propylnorapomorphine have potential as low side effect profile antipsychotics.

Related:  Drug & The Mind