Rational choice theory (criminology) In criminology, the rational choice theory adopts a utilitarian belief that man is a reasoning actor who weighs means and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a rational choice. This method was designed by Cornish and Clarke to assist in thinking about situational crime prevention  It is assumed, that crime is purposive behavior designed to meet the offender’s commonplace needs for such things as money, status, sex and excitement, and that meeting these needs involves the making of (sometimes quite rudimentary) decisions and choices, constrained as these are by limits, ability, and the availability of relevant information  Rational choice is based on numerous assumptions, one of which is individualism  The offender sees themselves as an individual. The second is that individuals have to maximize their goals, and the third is that individuals are self-interested Offenders are thinking about themselves and how to advance their personal goals. See Routine activity theory
Socioeconomics Socioeconomics (also known as socio-economics or social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy. Overview Socioeconomics is sometimes used as an umbrella term with different usages. The term 'Social economics' may refer broadly to the "use of economics in the study of society. Neoliberalism in international relations Neoliberal international relations thinkers often employ game theory to explain why states do or do not cooperate; since their approach tends to emphasize the possibility of mutual wins, they are interested in institutions which can arrange jointly profitable arrangements and compromises. Neoliberalism argues that even in an anarchic system of autonomous rational states, cooperation can emerge through the building of norms, regimes and institutions. In terms of the scope of international relations theory and foreign interventionism, the debate between Neoliberalism and Neorealism is an intra-paradigm one, as both theories are positivist and focus mainly on the state system as the primary unit of analysis.
How to Waste a Crisis Stuart Davis, Memo (1956) via Smithsonian Philip Mirowski’s Never Let a Serious Crisis Go to Waste seeks to discredit economic explanations of the crisis, but in so doing discounts any possible political alternatives to neoliberalism In 1978, in a series of lectures at the Collège de France, philosopher Michel Foucault told the gathered students that they should start reading University of Chicago economists. Almost 30 years before management consultants like Tom Peters would start promoting the value of people measuring their own human capital, Foucault walked his audience through obscure journal articles on the economics of the self by the idea of human capital’s intellectual progenitor, Gary Becker.
Routine activity theory A graphical model of the Routine activity theory. The theory stipulates three necessary conditions for most crime; a likely offender, a suitable target, and the absence of a capable guardian, coming together in time and space. In other words: for a crime to occur, a likely offender must find a suitable target with capable guardians absent. Business The etymology of "business" stems from the idea of being busy, and implies socially valuable and rewarding work. A business can mean a particular organization or a more generalized usage refers to an entire market sector, i.e. "the music business". Compound forms such as agribusiness represent subsets of the word's broader meaning, which encompasses all the activity by all the suppliers of goods and services. Basic forms of business ownership Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common forms exist:
London School of Economics The London School of Economics and Political Science (informally the London School of Economics or LSE) is a public research university specialised in social sciences located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas and George Bernard Shaw, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and first issued degrees to its students in 1902. Despite its name, LSE conducts teaching and research across a range of social sciences, as well as in mathematics, statistics, philosophy and history. LSE is located in Westminster, central London, near the boundary between Covent Garden and Holborn in an area historically known as Clare Market. The School has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, economics, philosophy, business, literature and politics. History
Who controls the world? More resources for understanding Occupy Wall Street’s slogan “We are the 99%” had been echoing through the United States and the world for just over a month when James B. Glattfelder and his co-authors released the study “The Network of Global Corporate Control” in October 2011. The study was a scientific look at our global economy, revealing how control flows like water through pipes — some thin, some thick — between people and companies. The finding: that control of our economy is highly tightly concentrated into a small core of top players, leaving us all vulnerable to fast-spreading economic distress. James B.
Symbolic interactionism Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective that is influential in many areas of the sociological discipline. It is particularly important in microsociology and social psychology. Symbolic interactionism is derived from American pragmatism and particularly from the work of George Herbert Mead. Herbert Blumer, a student and interpreter of Mead, coined the term "symbolic interactionism" and put forward an influential summary of the perspective: people act toward things based on the meaning those things have for them; and these meanings are derived from social interaction and modified through interpretation. Sociologists working in this tradition have researched a wide range of topics using a variety of research methods.
Soft Drink Industry Structure The illusion of diversity: visualizing ownership in the soft drink industryPhil Howard,1 Chris Duvall2 and Kirk Goldsberry3August, 2010 BackgroundThree firms control 89% of US soft drink sales . This dominance is obscured from us by the appearance of numerous choices on retailer shelves.
What is Neoliberalism? "Neo-liberalism" is a set of economic policies that have become widespread during the last 25 years or so. Although the word is rarely heard in the United States, you can clearly see the effects of neo-liberalism here as the rich grow richer and the poor grow poorer. "Liberalism" can refer to political, economic, or even religious ideas. In the U.S. political liberalism has been a strategy to prevent social conflict. It is presented to poor and working people as progressive compared to conservative or Rightwing. Will Davies’s TCS Glossary entry on Neoliberalism Neoliberalism Neoliberalism refers to the ideas, strategies and policies, which have been introduced by intellectuals and governments, in the hope of reinventing economic liberalism. In contrast to 19th century liberalism, neoliberalism is understood as being actively designed and enforced by the state (Foucault, 2008).
Techniques of neutralization Techniques of neutralization ("neutralisation" in Commonwealth countries) are a theoretical series of methods by which those who commit illegitimate acts temporarily neutralize certain values within themselves which would normally prohibit them from carrying out such acts, such as morality, obligation to abide by the law, and so on. In simpler terms, it is a psychological method for people to turn off 'inner protests' when they do, or are about to do something they themselves perceive as wrong. The theory The idea of such techniques was first postulated by David Matza (born May 1, 1930) and Gresham Sykes (born 1922) during their work on Edwin Sutherland’s Differential Association in the 1950s. While Matza and Sykes were at the time working on juvenile delinquency, they theorised that the same techniques could be found throughout society and published their ideas in Delinquency and Drift 1964. The techniques
Remix culture Read-Only Culture vs. Read/Write Culture The Read Only culture (RO) is the culture we consume more or less passively.