Neoliberalism in international relations Neoliberal international relations thinkers often employ game theory to explain why states do or do not cooperate; since their approach tends to emphasize the possibility of mutual wins, they are interested in institutions which can arrange jointly profitable arrangements and compromises. Neoliberalism argues that even in an anarchic system of autonomous rational states, cooperation can emerge through the building of norms, regimes and institutions. In terms of the scope of international relations theory and foreign interventionism, the debate between Neoliberalism and Neorealism is an intra-paradigm one, as both theories are positivist and focus mainly on the state system as the primary unit of analysis. Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye are considered the founders of the neoliberal school of thought; Keohane's book After Hegemony is a classic of the genre. Another major influence is the hegemonic stability theory of Stephen Krasner, Charles P. Kindleberger, and others. Robert O.
Socioeconomics Socioeconomics (also known as socio-economics or social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy. Overview Socioeconomics is sometimes used as an umbrella term with different usages. The term 'Social economics' may refer broadly to the "use of economics in the study of society For example, the Governor of Washington, Paul Doran, announced the effects of socioeconomics. In many cases, socioeconomists focus on the social impact of some sort of economic change. The goal of socioeconomic study is generally to bring about socioeconomic development, usually by improvements in metrics such as GDP, life expectancy, literacy, levels of employment, etc. See also Notes Jump up ^ John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman,  1989. References Gustav Cassel,  1932.
The Story of Stuff London School of Economics The London School of Economics and Political Science (informally the London School of Economics or LSE) is a public research university specialised in social sciences located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas and George Bernard Shaw, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and first issued degrees to its students in 1902. Despite its name, LSE conducts teaching and research across a range of social sciences, as well as in mathematics, statistics, philosophy and history. LSE is located in Westminster, central London, near the boundary between Covent Garden and Holborn in an area historically known as Clare Market. The School has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, economics, philosophy, business, literature and politics. History Origins 20th century 21st century Stonework featuring the initials of LSE
Business The etymology of "business" stems from the idea of being busy, and implies socially valuable and rewarding work. A business can mean a particular organization or a more generalized usage refers to an entire market sector, i.e. "the music business". Compound forms such as agribusiness represent subsets of the word's broader meaning, which encompasses all the activity by all the suppliers of goods and services. Basic forms of business ownership Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common forms exist: Classifications Management The efficient and effective operation of a business, and study of this subject, is called management. Owners may administer their businesses themselves, or employ of managers to do this for them. Restructuring state enterprises In recent decades, various states modeled some of their assets and enterprises after business enterprises. Organization and government regulation Commercial law Capital
Belief in Nothing Nihilism confuses people. "How can you care about anything, or strive for anything, if you believe nothing means anything?" they ask. In return, nihilists point to the assumption of inherent meaning and question that assumption. Nihilists who aren't of the kiddie anarchist variety tend to draw a distinction between nihilism and fatalism. What is nihilism? As a nihilist, I recognize that meaning does not exist. In the same way, I accept that when I die, the most likely outcome will be a cessation of being. Even further, I recognize that there is no golden standard for life. A tree falling in a forest unobserved makes a sound. Many people "feel" marginalized when they think of this. Meaning is the human attempt to mold the world in our own image. This distanced mentality further affirms our tendency to find the world alienating to our consciousness. As a result, we like to separate the world from our minds and live in a world created by our minds. Nihilism reverses this process.
What is Neoliberalism? "Neo-liberalism" is a set of economic policies that have become widespread during the last 25 years or so. Although the word is rarely heard in the United States, you can clearly see the effects of neo-liberalism here as the rich grow richer and the poor grow poorer. "Liberalism" can refer to political, economic, or even religious ideas. In the U.S. political liberalism has been a strategy to prevent social conflict. "Neo" means we are talking about a new kind of liberalism. Economic liberalism prevailed in the United States through the 1800s and early 1900s. But the capitalist crisis over the last 25 years, with its shrinking profit rates, inspired the corporate elite to revive economic liberalism. The main points of neo-liberalism include: THE RULE OF THE MARKET. Around the world, neo-liberalism has been imposed by powerful financial institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank.
Soft Drink Industry Structure The illusion of diversity: visualizing ownership in the soft drink industryPhil Howard,1 Chris Duvall2 and Kirk Goldsberry3August, 2010 BackgroundThree firms control 89% of US soft drink sales . This dominance is obscured from us by the appearance of numerous choices on retailer shelves. Steve Hannaford refers to this as "pseudovariety," or the illusion of diversity, concealing a lack of real choice . To visualize the extent of pseudovariety in this industry we developed a cluster diagram to represent the number of soft drink brands and varieties found in the refrigerator cases of 94 Michigan retailers, along with their ownership and/or licensing connections. Click for zoom.it (scroll in and out) version or extra large versionPDF version of Soft Drink Industry Structure, 2008 ResultsWe recorded 993 varieties of soft drinks. The most successful competitors in these new categories may eventually be bought out. Coca-Cola’s 25 brands and 133 varieties Pepsi’s 17 brands and 161 varieties
7 Books We Lost to History That Would Have Changed the World The vast majority of the knowledge humans have assembled over the centuries, has been lost. The world's geniuses either kept their revelations to themselves and then died, or else they put it down on paper which has long since rotted or burned or been used to line some parakeet's cage. Obviously we'll never know what great books have been lost to time, but we have clues on some of them, and what those clues tell us is mind-boggling, and a little bit depressing. If you could make a library out of just books that didn't survive, you'd have a collection of some of the best freaking books ever written. The Gospel of Eve, by Unknown What is it: It is apparently a totally sexually perverse lost book of the Bible. (Wait, what? Why it's Awesome: Ah ha! Why You'll Never Read It: In the 4th Century church officials like Epiphanius lashed out at the book, apparently having nothing better to do than stop everyone from having sex and eating a little bit of semen. Heh heh heh. [Artist's depiction.]
ADM's New Frontiers: Palm Oil Deforestation and Child Labor ADM used to be known as the country’s corporate welfare king, and its top executives drew headlines as they perp-walked to prison. That was then, when the company ran elaborate price-fixing schemes in the lysine and other global commodity markets. This is now: For the second year in a row, ADM topped Fortune magazine’s list of most admired food production companies. But underneath its improved public image, ADM’s major forays into new markets, including cocoa and palm oil, are raising concerns. About 40 million tons of palm oil worth $20 billion is produced each year – 85 percent of it by Indonesia and Malaysia, where giant oil palm plantations account for the highest rates of deforestation in the world. While most palm oil is processed for cooking oil, biofuels and other uses in China and Southeast Asia, U.S. consumption has tripled in the past five years, making North America the fastest-growing market. Raiding the World’s Biggest Carbon Bank ADM and Wilmar: Joining Palms Dr.
Remix culture Remix culture, sometimes read-write culture, is a society that allows and encourages derivative works by combining or editing existing materials to produce a new creative work or product. A remix culture would be, by default, permissive of efforts to improve upon, change, integrate, or otherwise remix the work of copyright holders. While a common practice of artists of all domains throughout human history, the growth of exclusive copyright restrictions in the last several decades limits this practice more and more by the legal chilling effect. As reaction Harvard law professor Lawrence Lessig, who considers remixing a desirable concept for human creativity, works since the early 2000s on a transfer of the remixing concept into the digital age. Lessig founded the Creative Commons in 2001 which released Licenses as tools to enable remix culture again, as remixing is legally prevented by the default exclusive copyright regime applied currently on intellectual property.
Titanium or Water? Trouble brews in Southern India More than 5,000 people converged this month in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu to protest a deal that set the stage for the state government to appropriate almost 10,000 acres of land and hand it over to Tata Steel Corporation, a subsidiary of India’s largest conglomerate. The June 2007 agreement allows the giant company to mine ilmenite in Sathankulam, an agrarian pocket of India's coastal countryside. This ilmenite, when processed, yields titanium metal and titanium dioxide (TiO2), both extremely valuable products. But many locals are refusing to sell out of concern that the ilmenite mining operations and loss of land will destroy their traditional way of life and despoil the environment. At least 40 percent of the population -- the landless and those engaged in household industries -- depend on farming palmyra trees for subsistence or supplemental income. The Tamil Nadu government, has weighed in to side with Tata, and is threatening to seize the land by eminent domain. J.
Open-source economics First applied to the open-source software industry, this economic model may be applied to a wide range of enterprises. Some characteristics of open-source economics may include: work or investment is carried out without express expectation of return; products or services are produced through collaboration between users and developers; there is no direct individual ownership of the enterprise itself. As of recently there were no known commercial organizations outside of software that employ open-source economics as a structural base. Today there are organizations that provide services and products, or at least instructions for building such services or products, that use an open-source economic model. The structure of open source is based on user participation. See also References External links Yochai Benkler on the new open-source economics
DRC: Minerals Flow Abroad, Misery Remains International companies and local elites in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are pocketing revenues from copper and cobalt production instead of sharing it with local communities or spending it to reduce poverty, a watchdog group charged Wednesday. A new report by the London-based Global Witness says that despite being one of the richest copper- and cobalt-producing areas in the world, the province of Katanga in southeastern DRC remains severely poor and the population has little or no infrastructure or public services. "The profits are serving to line the pockets of a small but powerful elite -- politicians and businessmen who are exploiting the local population and subverting natural riches for their own private ends," says the report, whose authors based their findings on field research in November and December last year. The 56-page report also scrutinises the role of local regulators, international donors and multinational firms. "We know that the Congo is rich.