Rational choice theory (criminology) In criminology, the rational choice theory adopts a utilitarian belief that man is a reasoning actor who weighs means and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a rational choice. This method was designed by Cornish and Clarke to assist in thinking about situational crime prevention  It is assumed, that crime is purposive behavior designed to meet the offender’s commonplace needs for such things as money, status, sex and excitement, and that meeting these needs involves the making of (sometimes quite rudimentary) decisions and choices, constrained as these are by limits, ability, and the availability of relevant information  Rational choice is based on numerous assumptions, one of which is individualism  The offender sees themselves as an individual. The second is that individuals have to maximize their goals, and the third is that individuals are self-interested Offenders are thinking about themselves and how to advance their personal goals. See Routine activity theory
Neoliberalism in international relations Neoliberal international relations thinkers often employ game theory to explain why states do or do not cooperate; since their approach tends to emphasize the possibility of mutual wins, they are interested in institutions which can arrange jointly profitable arrangements and compromises. Neoliberalism argues that even in an anarchic system of autonomous rational states, cooperation can emerge through the building of norms, regimes and institutions. In terms of the scope of international relations theory and foreign interventionism, the debate between Neoliberalism and Neorealism is an intra-paradigm one, as both theories are positivist and focus mainly on the state system as the primary unit of analysis. Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye are considered the founders of the neoliberal school of thought; Keohane's book After Hegemony is a classic of the genre. Another major influence is the hegemonic stability theory of Stephen Krasner, Charles P. Kindleberger, and others. Robert O.
Socioeconomics Socioeconomics (also known as socio-economics or social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy. Overview Socioeconomics is sometimes used as an umbrella term with different usages. The term 'Social economics' may refer broadly to the "use of economics in the study of society For example, the Governor of Washington, Paul Doran, announced the effects of socioeconomics. In many cases, socioeconomists focus on the social impact of some sort of economic change. The goal of socioeconomic study is generally to bring about socioeconomic development, usually by improvements in metrics such as GDP, life expectancy, literacy, levels of employment, etc. See also Notes Jump up ^ John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman,  1989. References Gustav Cassel,  1932.
Market Fundamentalism Market fundamentalism (also known as free market fundamentalism) is a pejorative term applied to a strong belief in the ability of laissez-faire or free market policies to solve most economic and social problems. Critics of laissez-faire policies have used the term to denote what they perceive as a misguided belief, or deliberate deception, that free markets provide the greatest possible equity and prosperity, and that any interference with the market process decreases social well being. Users of the term include adherents of interventionist, mixed economy and protectionist positions, as well as billionaires such as George Soros, and economists such as Nobel Laureates Joseph Stiglitz and Paul Krugman. History of the term The expression "market fundamentalism" was popularized by business magnate and philanthropist George Soros in his book The Crisis of Global Capitalism (1998), in which he writes "This idea was called laissez faire in the nineteenth century...
The Story of Stuff labeling theory London School of Economics The London School of Economics and Political Science (informally the London School of Economics or LSE) is a public research university specialised in social sciences located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas and George Bernard Shaw, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and first issued degrees to its students in 1902. Despite its name, LSE conducts teaching and research across a range of social sciences, as well as in mathematics, statistics, philosophy and history. LSE is located in Westminster, central London, near the boundary between Covent Garden and Holborn in an area historically known as Clare Market. The School has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, economics, philosophy, business, literature and politics. History Origins 20th century 21st century Stonework featuring the initials of LSE
Business The etymology of "business" stems from the idea of being busy, and implies socially valuable and rewarding work. A business can mean a particular organization or a more generalized usage refers to an entire market sector, i.e. "the music business". Compound forms such as agribusiness represent subsets of the word's broader meaning, which encompasses all the activity by all the suppliers of goods and services. Basic forms of business ownership Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common forms exist: Classifications Management The efficient and effective operation of a business, and study of this subject, is called management. Owners may administer their businesses themselves, or employ of managers to do this for them. Restructuring state enterprises In recent decades, various states modeled some of their assets and enterprises after business enterprises. Organization and government regulation Commercial law Capital
Plutocracy Plutocracy (from Greek πλοῦτος, ploutos, meaning "wealth", and κράτος, kratos, meaning "power, dominion, rule") or plutarchy, is a form of oligarchy and defines a society or a system ruled and dominated by the small minority of the wealthiest citizens. The first known use of the term was in 1652. Unlike systems such as democracy, capitalism, socialism or anarchism, plutocracy is not rooted in an established political philosophy. The concept of plutocracy may be advocated by the wealthy classes of a society in an indirect or surreptitious fashion, though the term itself is almost always used in a pejorative sense. Usage Examples Examples of plutocracies include the Roman Empire, some city-states in Ancient Greece, the civilization of Carthage, the Italian city-states/merchant republics of Venice, Florence, Genoa, and pre-World War II Empire of Japan (the zaibatsu). Modern politics United States Post World War II Russia As a propaganda term
Belief in Nothing Nihilism confuses people. "How can you care about anything, or strive for anything, if you believe nothing means anything?" they ask. In return, nihilists point to the assumption of inherent meaning and question that assumption. Nihilists who aren't of the kiddie anarchist variety tend to draw a distinction between nihilism and fatalism. What is nihilism? As a nihilist, I recognize that meaning does not exist. In the same way, I accept that when I die, the most likely outcome will be a cessation of being. Even further, I recognize that there is no golden standard for life. A tree falling in a forest unobserved makes a sound. Many people "feel" marginalized when they think of this. Meaning is the human attempt to mold the world in our own image. This distanced mentality further affirms our tendency to find the world alienating to our consciousness. As a result, we like to separate the world from our minds and live in a world created by our minds. Nihilism reverses this process.
Routine activity theory A graphical model of the Routine activity theory. The theory stipulates three necessary conditions for most crime; a likely offender, a suitable target, and the absence of a capable guardian, coming together in time and space. In other words: for a crime to occur, a likely offender must find a suitable target with capable guardians absent. Routine activity theory is a sub-field of crime opportunity theory that focuses on situations of crimes (e.g., you are more likely to be robbed or a victim of assault in the park than in your locked home). It has been developed by Marcus Felson and Lawrence E. Cohen, The premise of routine activity theory is that crime is relatively unaffected by social causes such as poverty, inequality and unemployment. Routine activity theory is controversial among sociologists who believe in the social causes of crime. Theoretical framework Motivated offenders are individuals who are not only capable of committing criminal activity, but are willing to do so.
What is Neoliberalism? "Neo-liberalism" is a set of economic policies that have become widespread during the last 25 years or so. Although the word is rarely heard in the United States, you can clearly see the effects of neo-liberalism here as the rich grow richer and the poor grow poorer. "Liberalism" can refer to political, economic, or even religious ideas. In the U.S. political liberalism has been a strategy to prevent social conflict. "Neo" means we are talking about a new kind of liberalism. Economic liberalism prevailed in the United States through the 1800s and early 1900s. But the capitalist crisis over the last 25 years, with its shrinking profit rates, inspired the corporate elite to revive economic liberalism. The main points of neo-liberalism include: THE RULE OF THE MARKET. Around the world, neo-liberalism has been imposed by powerful financial institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank.
Soft Drink Industry Structure The illusion of diversity: visualizing ownership in the soft drink industryPhil Howard,1 Chris Duvall2 and Kirk Goldsberry3August, 2010 BackgroundThree firms control 89% of US soft drink sales . This dominance is obscured from us by the appearance of numerous choices on retailer shelves. Steve Hannaford refers to this as "pseudovariety," or the illusion of diversity, concealing a lack of real choice . To visualize the extent of pseudovariety in this industry we developed a cluster diagram to represent the number of soft drink brands and varieties found in the refrigerator cases of 94 Michigan retailers, along with their ownership and/or licensing connections. Click for zoom.it (scroll in and out) version or extra large versionPDF version of Soft Drink Industry Structure, 2008 ResultsWe recorded 993 varieties of soft drinks. The most successful competitors in these new categories may eventually be bought out. Coca-Cola’s 25 brands and 133 varieties Pepsi’s 17 brands and 161 varieties
Crony Capitalism Crony capitalism is a term describing an economy in which success in business depends on close relationships between business people and government officials. It may be exhibited by favoritism in the distribution of legal permits, government grants, special tax breaks, or other forms of state interventionism. Crony capitalism is believed to arise when business cronyism and related self-serving behavior by businesses or businesspeople spills over into politics and government, or when self-serving friendships and family ties between businessmen and the government influence the economy and society to the extent that it corrupts public-serving economic and political ideals. The term "crony capitalism" made a significant impact in the public arena as an explanation of the Asian financial crisis. It is also used world wide to describe virtually any governmental decisions favoring "cronies" of governmental officials. Crony capitalism in practice Crony Capitalism Index