Plate Tectonics : Subduction Zones When two oceanic plates collide, the younger of the two plates, because it is less dense,* will ride over the edge of the older plate. *[Oceanic plates grow more dense as they cool and move further away from the Mid-Ocean Ridge]. (Image: Keith-Wiess Geological Laboratories; Rice University) The older, heavier plate bends and plunges steeply through the athenosphere, and descending into the earth, it forms a trench that can be as much as 70 miles wide, more than a thousand miles long, and several miles deep. The Marianas Trench, where the enormous Pacific Plate is descending under the leading edge of the Eurasian Plate, is the deepest sea floor in the world. Trench Flipping If the descending oceanic plate is carrying a continent, the less dense continental material cannot sink, so it dives into the trench behind the leading oceanic crust until it gets stuck. Next Page >
Plate Tectonics The Tectonic Globe™ The Plate Tectonic Globe™ The Plate Tectonic Globe™ is a globe unlike any other currently on the market. Its unique hand-crafted design illustrates clearly and accurately Earth's crustal tectonic features in vivid relief. The Plate Tectonic Globe™ captures the essence of Earth's dynamic character by depicting tectonic plate boundaries at mid-ocean ridges, subduction zones, and continental collision zones. Aside from its unique aesthetic qualities, the tactility of our Plate Tectonic Globe makes it ideal for developing an understanding of Earth's tectonic nature by making it fun to explore the surface of the planet in a hands-on, minds-on way. Interested in The Plate Tectonic Globe™...email email@example.com At Tectonic Designs we envision two embodiments for this fascinating globe. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------It's that fascinating and that unique!
Plate Tectonics Quicktime versionAVI version Animated gifs Last 750 million years: [1.04 MB] [506 KB] [261 KB] Last 750 million years in reverse: [1.04 MB] [506 KB] From 750 mya to the beginning of the Paleozoic: [294 KB] [166 KB] From 750 mya to the beginning of the Mesozoic: [532 KB] [284 KB] [156 KB] From the beginning of the Mesozoic to Recent: [301 KB] [163 KB] [96 KB] All animations built from maps used with the permission of C.R. There are a number of excellent sites dealing with the modern theory of plate tectonics. The Paleomap project at the University of Texas at Arlington.Paleogeography Through Geologic Time by Ron Blakey at Northern Arizona University. Finally, it seems appropriate to mention the Alfred Wegener Institute, the German national research center for polar and marine research, carrying on Wegener's tradition of interdisciplinary earth science. Sources: S.
Can Catastrophic Plate Tectonics Explain Flood Geology What Is Plate Tectonics? The earth’s thin rocky outer layer (3–45 mi [5–70 km] thick) is called “the crust.” On the continents it consists of sedimentary rock layers—some containing fossils and some folded and contorted—together with an underlying crystalline rocky basement of granites and metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. In places, the crystalline rocks are exposed at the earth’s surface, usually as a result of erosion. Beneath the crust is what geologists call the mantle, which consists of dense, warm-to-hot (but solid) rock that extends to a depth of 1,800 mi (2,900 km). Below the mantle lies the earth’s core, composed mostly of iron. Investigations of the earth’s surface have revealed that it has been divided globally by past geologic processes into what today is a mosaic of rigid blocks called “plates.” Figure 1. Extension occurs where the seafloor is being pulled apart or split along rift zones, such as along the axes of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the East Pacific Rise. Figure 3.
Supervolcano eruption mystery solved 6 January 2014Last updated at 08:28 ET By James Morgan Science reporter, BBC News If the Yellowstone supervolcano erupted the impact would be catastrophic Scientists have made a breakthrough in their efforts to understand what causes so-called supervolcanoes to erupt. Supervolcanoes are capable of eruptions thousands of times larger than normal outpourings. It was thought that an external trigger, such as an earthquake, was needed to bring about a giant blast. But tests at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble show the sheer volume of liquid magma is enough to cause a catastrophic super-eruption. Details of the research by a Swiss team appear in Nature Geoscience. Simulating the intense heat and pressure inside these "sleeping giants" could help predict a future disaster. Lead author Wim Malfait, of ETH Zurich, said: "We knew the clock was ticking but we didn't know how fast: what would it take to trigger a super-eruption?
Smooth-On - Mold Making and Casting Materials for a World of Applications! NASA Earth Observatory : Home PACIFIC RING OF FIRE Pacific Ring of Fire The Pacific Ring of Fire (or just The Ring of Fire) is an area where large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km (25,000 mi) horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes. It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circum-Pacific seismic belt. About 90%] of the world's earthquakes and 81% of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The Ring of Fire is a direct result of plate tectonics and the movement and collisions of lithospheric plates. The Cocos Plate is being subducted beneath the Caribbean Plate, in Central America. Further west the Pacific plate is being subducted along the Kamchatka Peninsula arcs on south past Japan. Major Volcanic Areas in the Pacific Ring of Fire
Geography Site: Plate Tectonics Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics Continental Drift As far back as 1620, Francis Bacon spotted that the west coast of Africa and the east coast of South America looked as if they would fit together, like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. Between then and 1912 other people identified further similarities between other continental coastlines, but it was only in 1912 that Alfred Wegener (left) published a theory to explain why the Earth looked like a huge jigsaw puzzle. He suggested that a very long time ago all the land that covered the Earth had been joined together into one huge continent. He named this landmass, Pangaea, and suggested that millions of years ago this supercontinent had somehow broken up. Firstly, he was able to show that fossils of a small reptile called Mesosaurus were found only in South Africa and Brazil. Secondly, he realised that the rocks in South Africa and southeast Brazil were very similar, both in age and structure. Other discoveries added to his list of evidence.
Volcano eruption in Indonesia kills 3, forces 100,000 to be evacuated Trisnadi/AP Mount Kelud erupts, as seen from Anyar village in Blitar, East Java, Indonesia, Friday, Feb. 14, 2014. Volcanic ash from the major eruption in Indonesia shrouded a large swath of the country's most densely populated island on Friday, closed three international airports and sent thousands fleeing. A powerful volcanic eruption on Indonesia's most populous island blasted ash and debris 18 kilometers (12 miles) into the air Friday, killing three people and forcing authorities to evacuate more than 100,000 and close seven airports. The eruption of Mount Kelud on Java island could be heard up to 200 kilometers (125 miles) away, Indonesia's disaster agency said. "The eruption sounded like thousands of bombs exploding," Ratno Pramono, a 35-year-old farmer, said as he checked his property in the village of Sugihwaras, about 5 kilometers (3 miles) from the crater. AMAN ROCHMAN/AFP/Getty Images A woman is carried by a member of the Indonesian military after a massive volcano eruption.
Tractor Beam Technology @CoffinDodger (If the typos crap. Blame my keyboard): Reminds me of the movie "The Forgotten " When people got yanked into the sky. It was awesome..I screamed lol. Kinda like the Skyline trailer but extremely faster and one person at a time. @Kenny Stancil: Ive seen 'The Forgotten' and I completly see where your coming from. I think on an industrial scale, this has the potential to be as cool as the tractor beams on the USS Eterprise. @CoffinDodger (If the typos crap. I know, it's SO much easier when we do it that way. ;)- Earth Earth Earth is a complex, dynamic system we do not yet fully understand. The Earth system, like the human body, comprises diverse components that interact in complex ways. We need to understand the Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere as a single connected system. Our planet is changing on all spatial and temporal scales. The purpose of NASA's Earth science program is to develop a scientific understanding of Earth's system and its response to natural or human-induced changes, and to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards. This is a composite image of the North African Continent. A major component of NASA’s Earth Science Division is a coordinated series of satellite and airborne missions for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans.