Neuroscience of free will Neuroscience of free will is the part of neurophilosophy that studies the interconnections between free will and neuroscience. As it has become possible to study the living brain, researchers have begun to watch decision making processes at work. Findings could carry implications for our sense of agency and for moral responsibility and the role of consciousness in general. Relevant findings include the pioneering study by Benjamin Libet and its subsequent redesigns; these studies were able to detect activity related to a decision to move, and the activity appears to begin briefly before people become conscious of it. Other studies try to predict activity before overt action occurs. Taken together, these various findings show that at least some actions - like moving a finger - are initiated unconsciously at first, and enter consciousness afterward. A monk meditates. Overview -Patrick Haggard discussing an in-depth experiment by Itzhak Fried Criticisms
Liberation psychology Liberation psychology or liberation social psychology is an approach to psychology that aims to actively understand the psychology of oppressed and impoverished communities by conceptually and practically addressing the oppressive sociopolitical structure in which they exist. The central concepts of liberation psychology include: conscientization; realismo-crítico; de-ideologized reality; a coherently social orientation; the preferential option for the oppressed majorities, and methodological eclecticism. History Emergence The core ideas of liberation psychology emerged in Latin America in the 1970s in response to criticisms of traditional psychology, social psychology specifically. Psychology was criticised for its 1) value neutrality; 2) assertion of universality; 3) societal irrelevance. In response to theses criticisms, psychologists sought to create a psychological science that addressed social inequalities both in theory and practical application.
The Happiness Project Toolbox An INTP Profile by Paul James Original version: April 5, 1999 revised and published on the web: March 12, 2000 INTP is one of the 16 personality types defined in the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). I will assume that visitors to this page already have a basic knowledge of the MBTI system for I wish to concentrate on describing the INTP type as best I can. The descriptions below are based on personal experience combined with knowledge derived from other MBTI sources and I hope that other INTPs and non-INTPs alike may find some of this material illuminating. For a general introduction and overview of MBTI temperament analysis, visit Robert Winer's excellent resource at Gesher. INTPs are about 1% of the general population, making this one of the rarest of types. The consequences of the orientation and rank of each of the four functions for the INTP type is described in turn below. Primary Axis: Introverted Thinking - Extraverted Intuition Dominant Function: Introverted Thinking Concluding Words
How walking through a doorway increases forgetting Like information in a book, unfolding events are stored in human memory in successive chapters or episodes. One consequence is that information in the current episode is easier to recall than information in a previous episode. An obvious question then is how the mind divides experience up into these discrete episodes? Dozens of participants used computer keys to navigate through a virtual reality environment presented on a TV screen. The key finding is that memory performance was poorer after travelling through an open doorway, compared with covering the same distance within the same room. But what if this result was only found because of the simplistic virtual reality environment? Another interpretation of the findings is that they have nothing to do with the boundary effect of a doorway, but more to do with the memory enhancing effect of context (the basic idea being that we find it easier to recall memories in the context that we first stored them).
Carl Jung on Richard Wilhelm - School of Wisdom I first met Richard Wilhelm at Count Keyserling's during a meeting of the "School of Wisdom" in Darmstadt. That was in the early twenties. In 1923 we invited him to Zurich and he spoke on the I Ching (or Yi Jing) at the Psychology Club. Even before meeting him I had been interested in Oriental philosophy, and around 1920 had begun experimenting with the I Ching. The only subjective intervention in this experiment consists in the experimenter's arbitrarily - that is, without counting-dividing up the bundle of forty-nine stalks at a single swoop. During the whole of those summer holidays I was preoccupied with the question: Are the I Ching's answers meaningful or not? In the mid-thirties I met the Chinese philosopher Hu Shi. I asked him whether the oracle had been correct. "And did the oracle give you a sensible answer?" He hesitated. A few years after my first experiments with the reeds, the I Ching was published with Wilhelm's commentary.
8-Circuit Model of Consciousness The eight-circuit model of consciousness is a theory proposed by Timothy Leary and expanded on by Robert Anton Wilson and Antero Alli. The model describes eight circuits of information (eight "brains") that operate within the human nervous system. Each circuit is concerned with a different sphere of activity. Leary, Alli and Wilson have written about the model in depth and how each circuit operates, both in the lives of individual people and in societies. The term "circuits" came from the first wave of cybernetics research and development in the United States in the 1970s. The eight circuits 1. This circuit is concerned with nourishment, physical safety, comfort and survival, suckling, cuddling etc. This circuit is activated in adults by opioids such as morphine and heroin. A positive imprint sets up a basic attitude of trust. This circuit is said to have appeared in the earliest evolution of the invertebrate brain and corresponds to the reptilian brain of triune brain theory. 2. 3.
Interaction Styles Interaction Styles are groupings of the 16 types of the MBTI instrument of psychometrics and Jungian psychology. The Interaction Styles model was developed by Linda Berens, PhD, founder of the Temperament Research Institute. This model builds on David Keirsey's Temperament model and its subcategories, and is based on observable behavior patterns that are quite similar to David Merrill's "Social Styles" and William Moulton Marston's DiSC theory. Development Linda V. Comparison and cross-mapping with Keirseyan Temperament Plus, he also drew more upon the likes of Ernst Kretschmer and Eduard Spranger, who had other models which he correlated with Galen's temperaments (though they were not necessarily perfect matches of them); while others followed Pavlov and Eysenck, who shaped the modern theories of those who held onto the Galenic names. The role of Thinking, Feeling, Judging and Perceiving Looking at the type division between Directing vs. See also References
this is (not) psychology Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people, writing that "the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy Hierarchy The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d-needs": esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs. Esteem
The Plutchik Emotion Circumplex And The 8 Primary Bipolar Emotions | FEELguide Robert Plutchik (1927 – 2006) was Professor Emeritus at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and adjunct professor at the University of South Florida. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia University and he was also a psychologist. He has authored or coauthored more than 260 articles, 45 chapters and eight books and has edited seven books, and the primary focus of his research included the study of emotions, the study of suicide and violence, and the study of the psychotherapy process. Plutchik’s psychoevolutionary theory of emotion is one of the most influential classification approaches for general emotional responses, where he considered there to be eight primary emotions: anger, fear, sadness, disgust, surprise, anticipation, trust, and joy. He proposed that these ‘basic’ emotions are biologically primitive and have evolved in order to increase the reproductive fitness of the animal. Joy vs. Source: Swiss Miss and Wikipedia
The Personality Page Neural balls and strikes: Where categories live in the brain Public release date: 15-Jan-2012 [ Print | E-mail Share ] [ Close Window ] Contact: Robert Mitchumrobert.email@example.com 773-484-9890University of Chicago Medical Center Hundreds of times during a baseball game, the home plate umpire must instantaneously categorize a fast-moving pitch as a ball or a strike. While monkeys played a computer game in which they had to quickly determine the category of a moving visual stimulus, neural recordings revealed brain activity that encoded those categories. "This is as close as we've come to the source of these abstract signals" said David Freedman, PhD, assistant professor of neurobiology at the University of Chicago. Organizing the chaos of the surrounding world into categories is one of the brain's key functions. "The number of decisions we make per minute is remarkable," Freedman said. During the task, scientists recorded neural activity in PFC and LIP.
Epistemological Problems of Perception First published Thu Jul 12, 2001; substantive revision Sat May 5, 2007 The historically most central epistemological issue concerning perception, to which this article will be almost entirely devoted, is whether and how beliefs about physical objects and about the physical world generally can be justified or warranted on the basis of sensory or perceptual experience—where it is internalist justification, roughly having a reason to think that the belief in question is true, that is mainly in question (see the entry internalist vs. externalist conceptions of epistemic justification). This issue, commonly referred to as “the problem of the external world,” divides into two closely related sub-issues, which correspond to the first two main sections below. 1. What is it that we are immediately or directly aware of in sensory or perceptual experience? 1.1 The idea of immediacy or givenness 1.2 The Sense-Datum Theory Two main arguments have been offered for the sense-datum view.