Neuroscience of free will Neuroscience of free will is the part of neurophilosophy that studies the interconnections between free will and neuroscience. As it has become possible to study the living brain, researchers have begun to watch decision making processes at work. Findings could carry implications for our sense of agency and for moral responsibility and the role of consciousness in general. Relevant findings include the pioneering study by Benjamin Libet and its subsequent redesigns; these studies were able to detect activity related to a decision to move, and the activity appears to begin briefly before people become conscious of it. Other studies try to predict activity before overt action occurs. Taken together, these various findings show that at least some actions - like moving a finger - are initiated unconsciously at first, and enter consciousness afterward. A monk meditates. Overview -Patrick Haggard discussing an in-depth experiment by Itzhak Fried Criticisms
Liberation psychology Liberation psychology or liberation social psychology is an approach to psychology that aims to actively understand the psychology of oppressed and impoverished communities by conceptually and practically addressing the oppressive sociopolitical structure in which they exist. The central concepts of liberation psychology include: conscientization; realismo-crítico; de-ideologized reality; a coherently social orientation; the preferential option for the oppressed majorities, and methodological eclecticism. History Emergence The core ideas of liberation psychology emerged in Latin America in the 1970s in response to criticisms of traditional psychology, social psychology specifically. Psychology was criticised for its 1) value neutrality; 2) assertion of universality; 3) societal irrelevance. In response to theses criticisms, psychologists sought to create a psychological science that addressed social inequalities both in theory and practical application.
How walking through a doorway increases forgetting Like information in a book, unfolding events are stored in human memory in successive chapters or episodes. One consequence is that information in the current episode is easier to recall than information in a previous episode. An obvious question then is how the mind divides experience up into these discrete episodes? Dozens of participants used computer keys to navigate through a virtual reality environment presented on a TV screen. The key finding is that memory performance was poorer after travelling through an open doorway, compared with covering the same distance within the same room. But what if this result was only found because of the simplistic virtual reality environment? Another interpretation of the findings is that they have nothing to do with the boundary effect of a doorway, but more to do with the memory enhancing effect of context (the basic idea being that we find it easier to recall memories in the context that we first stored them).
Carl Jung on Richard Wilhelm - School of Wisdom I first met Richard Wilhelm at Count Keyserling's during a meeting of the "School of Wisdom" in Darmstadt. That was in the early twenties. In 1923 we invited him to Zurich and he spoke on the I Ching (or Yi Jing) at the Psychology Club. Even before meeting him I had been interested in Oriental philosophy, and around 1920 had begun experimenting with the I Ching. The only subjective intervention in this experiment consists in the experimenter's arbitrarily - that is, without counting-dividing up the bundle of forty-nine stalks at a single swoop. During the whole of those summer holidays I was preoccupied with the question: Are the I Ching's answers meaningful or not? In the mid-thirties I met the Chinese philosopher Hu Shi. I asked him whether the oracle had been correct. "And did the oracle give you a sensible answer?" He hesitated. A few years after my first experiments with the reeds, the I Ching was published with Wilhelm's commentary.
this is (not) psychology Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people, writing that "the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy Hierarchy The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d-needs": esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs. Esteem
Neural balls and strikes: Where categories live in the brain Public release date: 15-Jan-2012 [ Print | E-mail Share ] [ Close Window ] Contact: Robert Mitchumrobert.firstname.lastname@example.org 773-484-9890University of Chicago Medical Center Hundreds of times during a baseball game, the home plate umpire must instantaneously categorize a fast-moving pitch as a ball or a strike. While monkeys played a computer game in which they had to quickly determine the category of a moving visual stimulus, neural recordings revealed brain activity that encoded those categories. "This is as close as we've come to the source of these abstract signals" said David Freedman, PhD, assistant professor of neurobiology at the University of Chicago. Organizing the chaos of the surrounding world into categories is one of the brain's key functions. "The number of decisions we make per minute is remarkable," Freedman said. During the task, scientists recorded neural activity in PFC and LIP.
Epistemological Problems of Perception First published Thu Jul 12, 2001; substantive revision Sat May 5, 2007 The historically most central epistemological issue concerning perception, to which this article will be almost entirely devoted, is whether and how beliefs about physical objects and about the physical world generally can be justified or warranted on the basis of sensory or perceptual experience—where it is internalist justification, roughly having a reason to think that the belief in question is true, that is mainly in question (see the entry internalist vs. externalist conceptions of epistemic justification). This issue, commonly referred to as “the problem of the external world,” divides into two closely related sub-issues, which correspond to the first two main sections below. 1. What is it that we are immediately or directly aware of in sensory or perceptual experience? 1.1 The idea of immediacy or givenness 1.2 The Sense-Datum Theory Two main arguments have been offered for the sense-datum view.
Adolescents' brains respond differently than adults' when anticipating rewards Public release date: 17-Jan-2012 [ Print | E-mail Share ] [ Close Window ] Contact: B. Rose Huberrhuber@pitt.edu 412-624-4356University of Pittsburgh PITTSBURGH—Teenagers are more susceptible to developing disorders like addiction and depression, according to a paper published by Pitt researchers Jan. 16 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The study was led by Bita Moghaddam, coauthor of the paper and a professor of neuroscience in Pitt's Kenneth P. "The brain region traditionally associated with reward and motivation, called the nucleus accumbens, was activated similarly in adults and adolescents," said Moghaddam. Typically, researchers study the correlation between different behaviors of adolescents and adults. The researchers' predictions proved accurate. The Pitt team will continue to compare adolescent and adult behavior, especially as it relates to stimulants—such as amphetamines—and their influence on brain activity. [ Print | E-mail AAAS and EurekAlert!
10 Brilliant Social Psychology Studies Ten of the most influential social psychology experiments. “I have been primarily interested in how and why ordinary people do unusual things, things that seem alien to their natures.Why do good people sometimes act evil?Why do smart people sometimes do dumb or irrational things?” –Philip Zimbardo Like eminent social psychologist Professor Philip Zimbardo (author of The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil), I’m also obsessed with why we do dumb or irrational things. The answer quite often is because of other people – something social psychologists have comprehensively shown. Over the past few months I’ve been describing 10 of the most influential social psychology experiments. Each one tells a unique, insightful story relevant to all our lives, every day. 1. The ‘halo effect’ is a classic social psychology experiment. » Read on about the halo effect -» 2. » Read on about cognitive dissonance -» 3. » Read on about Sherif’s Robbers Cave experiment -» 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Penn Medicine News: Deciphering Hidden Code Reveals Brain Activity PHILADELPHIA – By combining sophisticated mathematical techniques more commonly used by spies instead of scientists with the power and versatility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a Penn neurologist has developed a new approach for studying the inner workings of the brain. A hidden pattern is encoded in the seemingly random order of things presented to a human subject, which the brain reveals when observed with fMRI. The research is published in the journal NeuroImage. Geoffrey K. Breaking Codes in Brain Studies This approach measures how the order of things changes brain responses. Previous experiments have presented information to study participants in more or less completely random order. Beating the Blood Flow Problem Aguirre’s new algorithm for creating de Bruijn sequences also helps correct an important limitation of fMRI, which works by measuring changes in brain blood flow. For More Information
The Top 10 Psychology Studies of 2010 The end of 2010 fast approaches, and I'm thrilled to have been asked by the editors of Psychology Today to write about the Top 10 psychology studies of the year. I've focused on studies that I personally feel stand out, not only as examples of great science, but even more importantly, as examples of how the science of psychology can improve our lives. Each study has a clear "take home" message, offering the reader an insight or a simple strategy they can use to reach their goals , strengthen their relationships, make better decisions, or become happier. 1) How to Break Bad Habits If you are trying to stop smoking , swearing, or chewing your nails, you have probably tried the strategy of distracting yourself - taking your mind off whatever it is you are trying not to do - to break the habit. That's because habit-behaviors happen automatically - often, without our awareness. J. 2) How to Make Everything Seem Easier J. 3) How To Manage Your Time Better M. 4) How to Be Happier J.
Théorie des intelligences multiples Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La théorie des intelligences multiples suggère qu'il existe plusieurs types d'intelligence chez l'enfant d'âge scolaire et aussi, par extension, chez l'Homme. Cette théorie fut pour la première fois proposée par Howard Gardner en 1983. L'origine de la théorie[modifier | modifier le code] Lorsque Howard Gardner publia son livre Frames of Mind: the Theory of Multiple Intelligence en 1983, il introduisit une nouvelle façon de comprendre l'intelligence des enfants en échec scolaire aux États-Unis. Les diverses catégories d'intelligence pour Howard Gardner[modifier | modifier le code] L’intelligence logico-mathématique[modifier | modifier le code] Les personnes qui ont une intelligence logico-mathématique développée possèdent la capacité de calculer, de mesurer, de faire preuve de logique et de résoudre des problèmes mathématiques et scientifiques. L’intelligence spatiale[modifier | modifier le code] Notes et références[modifier | modifier le code]
The Problem of Perception First published Tue Mar 8, 2005; substantive revision Fri Feb 4, 2011 Sense-perception—the awareness or apprehension of things by sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste—has long been a preoccupation of philosophers. One pervasive and traditional problem, sometimes called “the problem of perception”, is created by the phenomena of perceptual illusion and hallucination: if these kinds of error are possible, how can perception be what it intuitively seems to be, a direct and immediate access to reality? The present entry is about how these possibilities of error challenge the intelligibility of the phenomenon of perception, and how the major theories of perception in the last century are best understood as responses to this challenge. 1. 1.1 Introduction This entry will focus on a single, central problem of perception: how to reconcile some apparently obvious truths about our experience of the world with the possibility of certain kinds of perceptual error. 1.2 The Argument from Illusion 2.