American Indian Stories by Zitkala-Sa [aka Gertrude Simmons Bonnin] (1876-1938). Washington: Hayworth Publishing House, 1921. [Page] [Frontispiece] ZITKALA-SA (Gertrude Bonnin)A Dakota Sioux Indian [Title Page] BY ZITKALA-SA (Gertrude Bonnin ) Dakota Sioux Indian Lecturer; Author of "Old Indian Legends," "Americanize the First American," and other stories; Member of the Woman's National Foundation, League of American Pen-Women, and the Washington Salon "There is no great; there is no small; in the mind that causeth all " WashingtonHayworth Publishing House1921 [Page] Impressions of an Indian Childhood A WIGWAM of weather-stained canvas stood at the base of some irregularly ascending hills. Here, morning, noon, and evening, my mother came to draw water from the muddy stream for our household use. "Hush; my little daughter must never talk about my tears"; and smiling through them, she patted my head and said, "Now let me see how fast you can run today." I was a wild little girl of seven. So! "How!
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Zitkala-Sa, "The School Days of an Indian Girl."Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude Bonnin). "The School Days of an Indian Girl." The Online Archive of Nineteenth-Century U.S. There were eight in our party of bronzed children who were going East with the missionaries. We had been very impatient to start on our journey to the Red Apple Country, which, we were told, lay a little beyond the great circular horizon of the Western prairie. On the train, fair women, with tottering babies on each arm, stopped their haste and scrutinized the children of absent mothers. I sank deep into the corner of my seat, for I resented being watched. I sat perfectly still, with my eyes downcast, daring only now and then to shoot long glances around me. In this way I had forgotten my uncomfortable surroundings, when I heard one of my comrades call out my name. Though we rode several days inside of the iron horse, I do not recall a single thing about our luncheons. It was night when we reached the school grounds. Entering the house, I stood close against the wall.
Hoefel, Roseanne. " Zitkala-Sa: A Biography."Hoefel, Roseanne. "Zitkala-Sa: A Biography." The Online Archive of Nineteenth-Century U.S. Women's Writings. A Biography: By Roseanne Hoefel A vital link between the oral cultures of tribal America and the literate culture of contemporary American Indians, Gertrude Bonnin was the third child of Ellen Tate 'I yohiwin Simmons, a full-blood Yankton Sioux. As with many uprooted children, Zitkala-Sa returned after three years to a heightened tension with her mother and ambivalence regarding her heritage. Four years later, Zitkala-Sa re-entered school, graduated on to Earlham College to become a teacher, remaining socially reclusive even after congratulatory gestures by schoolmates when she won oratory contests. Later, Zitkala-Sa taught at CIIS in Pennsylvania, founded by Colonel Richard Pratt in 1879 to "save" Indians from white abuse and destruction by assimilating them and teaching them a trade. Zitkala-Sa was a controversial activist, as illustrated by her political record. Hafen, P.
Gertrude Simmons Bonnin : Voices From the Gaps : University of MinnesotaHome > Artist Pages : Gertrude Simmons Bonnin Biography / Criticism Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, Zitkala-sa (Red Bird), was an extraordinarily talented and educated Native American woman who struggled and triumphed in a time when severe prejudice prevailed toward Native American culture and women. Her talents and contributions in the worlds of literature, music, and politics challenge long-standing beliefs that the white man's culture is good, and Native Americans are sinful savages. Bonnin aimed at creating understanding between the dominant white and Native American cultures. As a woman of mixed white and Native American ancestry, she embodied the need for the two cultures to live cooperatively within the same body of land. Bonnin was born in 1876, on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. Though most noted for her literary and political genius, Bonnin was also an accomplished violinist and even won a scholarship to study at the Boston Conservatory of Music. Bonnin died in 1938.
Day 5- Native American Women’s Activism | Feminist ActivismImage by Smithsonian Institution via Flickr Native American women, like their Arab, Asian, black and Latina sisters, have also struggled in naming their own identities. Christopher Columbus’s geographic muddling typed the indigenous people of the Americas as “Indians” for centuries. Today Native American and Indian are used fairly interchangeably, but there is growing awareness as to the number and diversity of remaining tribes. Many Latinas of indigenous heritage, from tribes that reigned from Central America up into modern-day Colorado, unlike activists in MEChA, do not identify as indigenous people or Native Americans because of the racism that plagues American societies. “Women who wish to share their similar experiences ought to be able to do so but [they should] do so within the context of being mindful that we are part of a larger body of people under siege and all of us are needed in the struggle.” Another historical sister Native American women can look to is Molly Brant.
The Many Colors of Changing WomanDifferent Roles and Duties of Native American WomenAmong the many tribes of Native Americans throughout North America there were many different roles for the Native American women. The roles of many Native American women were very important to the every Indian tribe. First of all women are important to any society since they are the bearers of children, but to Native American tribes the women had many other very important responsibilities. Among some American Indian tribes the women would make many of the weapons that were used for hunting and war, and also built the homes they lived in, gathered firewood, as well as herbs for medicine, and nuts and berries for food. Within many tribes the Native American women also did much of the farming while the men hunted for the food the Native women would then cook. Some tribes also had medicine women as well as their medicine men, and some of the tribes also believed that women possessed a stronger healing power, and their healing chants and herbal remedies were much more effective.
The True Sacajawea of the Shosone tribeCREDIT: "Early pioneers and trappers, Sacajawea, the bird woman." [between 1800 and 1850?]. History of the American West, 1860-1920: Photographs from the Collection of the Denver Public Library from the Library of Congress. Reproduction Number: X-33784 Sacajawea is probably one of the more famous American Indians; there are children’s books and cartoons based on her travels with Lewis and Clark. However these tales of Sacajawea are just that, tales. Sacajawea Statue in Idaho Although the tales of Sacajawea are not true there are some aspects that are, Sacajawea was well known amongst the members of the expedition as being very selfless and helpful, at one point many of the members of the expedition had logged in an entry describing of how her canoe had capsized in the river and with her baby strapped to her back she, thinking fast and not for her own well being, worked to gather all the expeditions books and gear, or as much as she could. Looking for something different?
Women WarriorsThe word 'warrior' sends a tingle of fear down the spine. The word conjures up fierce, merciless fighters seemingly invulnerable to fear or intimidation and prepared to fight to the death using deadly weapons and blood thirsty tactics to achieve victory. Not the usual image that we would associate with women - but there were many Native American Women Warriors. Whilst the warrior class in tribal societies was typically all-male, there were exceptions where young, unmarried women formed part of the warrior class - the Warrior Women. Women Warriors - Lifestyle and Culture of North American WomenNative Indian tribes spread across the whole continent of North America. Women Warriors - Decision making rolesThe Native Indian women were used to blood, guts, death and gore - it was their job to skin and prepare the carcasses of animals for food. Scalp Dance of Spokane women by Paul Kane Attendant Women Dancers of the Scalp Dance from the Chualpay or Kettle TribePainting by Paul Kane
Hundreds expected at funeral ceremony for Onondaga Nation clan motherView full sizeJohn Berry / The Post-Standard, 2007Onondaga Nation elder Audrey Shenandoah hugs one of her great-great-grandchildren in this photo from March 25, 2007. The funeral service for Shenandoah, who died Thursday, is expected to draw people from all over the United States and Canada. Onondaga Nation, NY -- Hundreds of people from across North America are headed to the Onondaga Nation this weekend to say goodbye to Clan Mother Audrey Shenandoah. “This is not a time of sadness, this is a time of peace,” said Jeanne Shenandoah, her daughter. “She is at peace now.” Audrey Shenandoah, 85, a member of the Eel Clan, died Thursday morning. “She was well-known and respected all over the world,” Jeanne Shenandoah said. At Onondaga and across the Haudenosaunee nations, Audrey Shenandoah was respected and revered for her knowledge of the culture and the language. “She upheld the values, principals of equality and the democracy embodied in the Great Law of Peace,” Lyons said.