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Johann Hari: Everything you think you know about addiction is wrong

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Political correctness: how the right invented a phantom enemy Three weeks ago, around a quarter of the American population elected a demagogue with no prior experience in public service to the presidency. In the eyes of many of his supporters, this lack of preparation was not a liability, but a strength. Donald Trump had run as a candidate whose primary qualification was that he was not “a politician”. Depicting yourself as a “maverick” or an “outsider” crusading against a corrupt Washington establishment is the oldest trick in American politics – but Trump took things further. He broke countless unspoken rules regarding what public figures can or cannot do and say. Every demagogue needs an enemy.

Beyond Working Hard: What Growth Mindset Teaches Us About Our Brains Growth mindset has become a pervasive theme in education discussions in part because of convincing research by Stanford professor Carol Dweck and others that relatively low-impact interventions on how a student thinks about himself as a learner can have big impacts on learning. The growth mindset research is part of a growing understanding and acknowledgement that many non-cognitive factors are important to academic learning. While it’s a positive sign that educators see value in the growth mindset research and believe they can implement it in their classrooms, the deceptively simple idea has led to some confusion and misperceptions about what a growth mindset really is and how teachers can support it in the classroom. It’s easy to lump growth mindset in with other education catchphrases, like “resiliency” or “having high expectations,” but growth mindset actually has a much more concrete definition. Approaching the world with a growth mindset can be very liberating. Katrina Schwartz

The over-medicalisation of illness in the NHS is down to patients acting like customers The most upsetting and haunting of the things I found when I was sorting through my late mother’s things was a handwritten list in a notebook by the chair where she always sat. Every day for a short while, before she was admitted to hospital and diagnosed with secondary renal cancer of the bone, she’d been jotting down the details of the painkillers she was taking and the time at which she was taking them, in a very shaky hand. These weren’t strong, addictive painkillers. They were paracetamol and ibuprofen. It was awful to imagine her sitting there, her face twisted with pain, watching the clock until it was time to get a smidgeon of relief from agony.

Landmark Gene Discovery Cracks Open ‘Black Box’ Of Schizophrenia Sydney and her mother Lori look into the bedroom mirror where Sydney experienced her first symptoms of schizophrenia. Now 20, Sydney has had no symptoms for almost two years now. (Jesse Costa/WBUR) One November day in her senior year of high school, Sydney accidentally broke the full-length mirror leaning up against the wall of her bedroom. She felt a gust of superstitious dread: “Oh my God, I have to put this mirror together or I’m going to have bad luck.”

Addison’s disease Case scenario A 34 year old woman presented with a 12 month history of increasing tiredness, anorexia, weight loss, and depression. During that period, she had tried two different antidepressant tablets without benefit. She saw her general practitioner’s locum, who thought she looked tanned. Making Embryos With DNA From 3 People Might Be OK Editor's note: This post was updated Feb. 3, 2016, at 12:25 pm to include a statement from the Food and Drug Administration and a comment from Mark Sauer. Would it be ethical for scientists to try to create babies that have genetic material from three different people? An influential panel of experts has concluded the answer could be yes.

Are there disorders or conditions associated with spina bifida? Health issues are different for each person with spina bifida. Open spina bifida (myelomeningocele)—in which the spinal cord is exposed—tends to cause more severe problems.1 Hydrocephalus Many infants born with spina bifida get extra fluid in and around the brain, a condition called hydrocephalus, or water on the brain. The extra fluid can cause swelling of the head, which may lead to brain injury.

Paris: Voice of the Suburbs Widad Ketfi is a bold journalist for Bondy Blog, a news outlet set up to give young journalists in Paris' deprived suburbs an opportunity to shape their own narrative and combat negative stereotypes depicted in the mainstream media. One of the issues Widad feels most strongly about is the social inequalities that begin at school - her next assignment for the blog. For Widad's investigation, she travels around the suburbs of Paris, where she meets locals, teachers and students, while trying to track down the national education minister for an all-important interview. In an area where one in five people are out of work - double the national average - Widad sees education as key to empowering so many dispossessed youth, as it did in her own experience.