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Africa Map / Map of Africa - Facts, Geography, History of Africa

Africa Map / Map of Africa - Facts, Geography, History of Africa
print this map >>> LARGER (printable) AFRICA MAP As for Africa, scientists have formerly concluded that it is the birthplace of mankind, as large numbers of human-like fossils (discovered no where else) were found on the continent, some dating back 3.5 million years. About 1.75 million years ago, early man spread throughout parts of Africa. The Neanderthals arose some 200,000 years ago and inhabited regions in northern Africa and across parts of southern Europe. One of the most important developments of primitive man was the creation of stone tools. In 3200 BC the Egyptian culture emerged along the lower reaches of the Nile River; it was among the earliest civilizations and their tools and weapons were made of bronze. Egyptians also developed mathematics, an innovative system of medicine, irrigation and agricultural production techniques, writing and the first ships. Before the Middle Ages began, the Roman Empire collapsed and the Arabs quickly took their place on the continent. Related:  African history

Pre-colonial African History These few notes aim to provide some historical background to better understand the events that have shaped the people I have met in the countries I visited in Africa. A) Almohads In 1121, Muhammad ibn Tumart, an Arab reformer was proclaimed Al Mahdi ("The Rightly Guided") in Morocco by a large following of disciples calling themselves "al-muwahhid" (those who proclaim the unity of God, hence the name Almohads). A) Almoravids Around 1050, a Muslim religious military brotherhood known as the hermits (Arabic al-murabit, hence the name Almoravids) began its expansion in northwestern Africa. A) Ashanti Empire The Ashanti people occupied what is now southern Ghana in the 18th and 19th centuries. D) Dahomey Kingdom Founded in the early 17th century, the Kingdom of Dahomey gradually extended its domination around its capital of Abomey over most of what is now the southern part of Benin. D) Donatists F) Fulani Theocracy The Fulani that remained nomadic herders are now widely dispersed in West Africa.

African History - Essays, Notes & Papers provides assistance to writers struggling with difficult essay topics, like African history. There are a wide variety of free research papers and free term papers available on to help you complete your own assignment. Browse the list of college essay categories, or use the search engine to find a specific research paper related to African history. Documents 1 - 30 of 828 Go to Page

History of Africa African States between 500 BCE and 1500 CE The history of Africa begins with the prehistory of Africa and the emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa, continuing into the present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states. Some early evidence of agriculture in Africa dates from 16,000 BCE,[1] and metallurgy from about 4000 BCE. The recorded history of early civilization arose in Egypt, and later in Nubia, the Maghreb and the Horn of Africa. From the late 15th century, Europeans and Arabs took slaves from West, Central and Southeast Africa overseas in the African slave trade.[2] European colonization of Africa developed rapidly in the Scramble for Africa of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Africa's history has been challenging for researchers in the field of African studies because of the scarcity of written sources in large parts of the continent. Prehistory[edit] Paleolithic[edit] The first known hominids evolved in Africa. Emergence of agriculture[edit]

Ihmisen evoluutio Ihmisen evoluutiolla tarkoitetaan ihmisen kehittymistä ja eriytymistä omaksi lajikseen ihmisen ja muiden apinoiden tai apinaihmisten yhteisestä kantamuodosta. Ihmisen evoluution tutkimukseen (jota kutsutaan myös paleoantropologiaksi) liittyy useita tieteenaloja, muun muassa fyysinen antropologia ja perinnöllisyystiede. Ihmisellä tarkoitetaan tässä yhteydessä ensisijaisesti ihmisten (Homo) suvun jäseniä, mutta ihmisen evoluution tutkimus käsittelee yleensä myös muita hominideja, kuten suvun Australopithecus apinaihmisiä. Uutta tietoa on saatu viimeisen kahdenkymmenen vuoden aikana fossiililöydösten myötä runsaasti. Ihmisten, apinaihmisten ja ihmisapinoiden kehitystä kuvaavat sukupuut näyttivät vielä jokin aika sitten varsin selkeiltä. Uusimpien löytöjen myötä sukupuu on muuttunut ”kehityspensaaksi”, johon pitäisi saada mahdutettua lukemattomat viime vuosina löydetyt uudet sukulaiset. Ihmisen kehitys pääpiirteittäin[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä] Valikoima kädellisten kalloja

Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa? May 2001 Lucy is the common name of an Australopithecus afarensis specimen discovered in 1974 in Ethiopia. Lucy is estimated to have lived 3.2 million years ago. Cleveland Natural History Museum, photo by Andrew. Around 30,000 years ago humans were anatomically and behaviorally similar throughout the world. One of the most hotly debated issues in paleoanthropology (the study of human origins) focuses on the origins of modern humans, Homo sapiens.9,10,3,6,13,15,14 Roughly 100,000 years ago, the Old World was occupied by a morphologically diverse group of hominids. Understanding the issue Multiregional theory: homo erectus left Africa 2 mya to become homo sapiens in different parts of the world. The Multiregional Continuity Model15 contends that after Homo erectus left Africa and dispersed into other portions of the Old World, regional populations slowly evolved into modern humans. To understand this controversy, the anatomical, archaeological, and genetic evidence needs to be evaluated.

Human evolution Human evolution is the evolutionary process leading up to the appearance of modern humans. While it began with the last common ancestor of all life, the topic usually covers only the evolutionary history of primates, in particular the genus Homo, and the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of hominids (or "great apes"). The study of human evolution involves many scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, ethology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryology and genetics.[1] The earliest documented members of the genus Homo are Homo habilis which evolved around 2.3 million years ago; the earliest species for which there is positive evidence of use of stone tools. The brains of these early hominins were about the same size as that of a chimpanzee, although it has been suggested that this was the time in which the human SRGAP2 gene doubled, producing a more rapid wiring of the frontal cortex. History of study[edit] Before Darwin[edit]