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Methylphenidate

Methylphenidate
Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a psychostimulant drug and substituted phenethylamine approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity. Prescribed to patients beginning in 1960, the drug became heavily prescribed in the 1990s, when the diagnosis of ADHD itself became more widely accepted.[1][2] Uses[edit] Medical[edit] Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit] Methylphenidate is approved by the U.S. Methylphenidate's long-term efficacy in ADHD treatment has been questioned because of a lack of long-term studies.[16] A 2010 study suggested that, "there is increasing evidence... Some research suggests that methylphenidate treatment need not be indefinite. Narcolepsy[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methylphenidate

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Iproniazid Iproniazid (Euphozid, Iprazid, Ipronid, Ipronin, Marsilid, Rivivol) is a hydrazine drug used as an antidepressant.[1] It acts as an irreversible and nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI).[2] Though it has been widely discontinued in most of the world, it is still used in France. As with all MAOIs, iproniazid is contraindicated in patients using SSRIs, SRAs, and serotonin agonists. History[edit] Cholinergic/Nicotinergic The N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation, with an undefined counteranion, X− In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation. Found in most animal tissues, choline is a primary component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and functions with inositol as a basic constituent of lecithin. It prevents fat deposits in the liver and facilitates the movement of fats into the cells. The richest sources of choline are liver, kidney, brain, wheat germ, brewer's yeast, and egg yolk.

Tobacco Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes. The chief commercial species, N. tabacum, is believed to have been native to tropical America, like most nicotiana plants, but has been so long cultivated that it is no longer known in the wild. N. rustica, a species producing fast-burning leaves, was the tobacco originally raised in Virginia, but it is now grown chiefly in Turkey, India, and Russia. The addictive alkaloid nicotine is popularly known as the most characteristic constituent of tobacco, but harmful effects of tobacco consumption can derive from the thousands of different chemicals in the smoke, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzopyrene), formaldehyde, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), phenols, and many others.[2] Tobacco also contains beta-carboline alkaloids which inhibit monoamine oxidase.[3] Tobacco cultivation is similar to other agricultural products.

Modafinil Modafinil is a wakefulness-promoting agent[3] (or eugeroic) that is approved by the United States' Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of wakefulness disorders such as narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder,[4][5] and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea.[6] In English-speaking countries it is sold under the brand names: Alertec (CA), Modavigil (AU, NZ), and Provigil (IE, ZA, UK, US). Medical uses[edit] Approved uses[edit] In 1998, modafinil was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration[7] for the treatment of narcolepsy and in 2003 for shift work sleep disorder and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea[8] even though caffeine and amphetamine were shown to be more wakefulness promoting on the Stanford Sleepiness Test Score than modafinil.[9] EEG studies indicate caffeine, amphetamine, and modafinil to all be theta wave reducing but only modafinil to be Alpha wave promoting during wakefulness as well as theta wave increasing during sleep.[10]

Wakefulness-promoting agent The prototypical eugeroic is modafinil, and other drugs include adrafinil and armodafinil. Modafinil and armodafinil have been found to act as selective, weak, atypical dopamine reuptake inhibitors.[2][3] Adrafinil is a prodrug of modafinil, and hence also acts in this way. The functional opposites of wakefulness-promoting agents are hypnotics, such as centrally-acting antihistamines (H1 receptor antagonists) and suvorexant, an orexin receptor antagonist. Tranylcypromine Tranylcypromine (Parnate, Jatrosom) is a drug of the substituted phenethylamine and amphetamine classes which acts as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)—it is a nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO).[1][2] It is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic agent in the clinical treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, respectively. History[edit] The drug was introduced by Smith, Kline and French in the United Kingdom in 1960, and approved in the United States in 1961.[5] It was withdrawn from the market in February 1964 due to a number of patient deaths involving hypertensive crises with intracranial bleeding. However, it was reintroduced later that year with more limited indications and specific warnings of the risks.[6]

Meclofenoxate Meclofenoxate (Lucidril), also known as centrophenoxine, is a drug used to treat the symptoms of senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease. It is an ester of dimethylethanolamine (DMAE) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (pCPA). DMAE is a natural substance, found especially in fish. pCPA is a synthetic compound that resembles a variety of plant hormones called auxins. In elderly patients, it has been clinically shown to improve memory, have a mentally stimulating effect, and improve general cognition.[1] Meclofenoxate also increases cellular membrane phospholipids. MDMA MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) is an empathogenic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes of drugs. MDMA has become widely known as "ecstasy" (shortened to "E", "X", or "XTC"), usually referring to its street form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants. The UK term "Mandy" and the US term "Molly" colloquially refer to MDMA that is relatively free of adulterants.[3]

Crack cocaine Crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Appearance and characteristics In purer forms, crack rocks appear as off-white nuggets with jagged edges,[3] with a slightly higher density than candle wax. Purer forms of crack resemble a hard brittle plastic, in crystalline form[3] (snaps when broken).

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