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Nicotine

Nicotine
In smaller doses (an average cigarette yields about 1 mg of absorbed nicotine), the substance acts as a stimulant in mammals, while high amounts (50–100 mg) can be harmful.[5][6][7] This stimulant effect is likely to be a major contributing factor to the dependence-forming properties of tobacco smoking, nicotine patches, nicotine gum, nicotine inhalers and liquid nicotine vaporizers.[citation needed] According to the American Heart Association, nicotine addiction has historically been one of the hardest addictions to break, while the pharmacological and behavioral characteristics that determine nicotine addiction are similar to those determining addiction to heroin and cocaine. The nicotine content of popular American-brand cigarettes has slowly increased over the years, and one study found that there was an average increase of 1.78% per year between the years of 1998 and 2005. Psychoactive effects[edit] Medical uses[edit] A 21 mg patch applied to the left arm. Side effects[edit] Related:  Psychoactive Alkaloidspsychostimulants

Atropine In general, atropine counters the "rest and digest" activity of glands regulated by the parasympathetic nervous system. This occurs because atropine is a competitive antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (acetylcholine being the main neurotransmitter used by the parasympathetic nervous system). Atropine dilates the pupils, increases heart rate, and reduces salivation and other secretions. Atropine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system.[1] Name[edit] The species name "belladonna" ("beautiful woman" in Italian) comes from the original use of deadly nightshade to dilate the pupils of the eyes for cosmetic effect. Medical uses[edit] It is a competitive antagonist for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor types M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5.[2] It is classified as an anticholinergic drug (parasympatholytic). Ophthalmic use[edit] Optical penalization[edit] Resuscitation[edit]

Phenethylamine Occurrence[edit] Phenethylamine is widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom.[5] Chemistry[edit] Synthesis[edit] One method for preparing β-phenethylamine, set forth in J. A much more convenient method for the synthesis of β-phenethylamine is the reduction of ω-nitrostyrene by lithium aluminum hydride in ether, whose successful execution was first reported by R. Pharmacology[edit] Phenethylamine, similar to amphetamine in its action, releases norepinephrine and dopamine.[9][10][11] When taken orally, though, it is rapidly metabolized.[12] Abnormally low concentrations of endogenous phenethylamine are found in those suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),[13] whereas abnormally high concentrations have been discovered to have a strong, positive correlation with the incidence of schizophrenia.[14] Phenethylamine and amphetamine pharmacodynamics in a TAAR1–dopamine neuron Pharmacokinetics[edit] Toxicity[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Mescaline Mescaline or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects similar to those of LSD and psilocybin. It shares strong structural similarities with the catecholamine dopamine. It occurs naturally in the peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii),[1] the San Pedro cactus[2] (Echinopsis pachanoi) and in the Peruvian torch (Echinopsis peruviana), and as well in a number of other members of the Cactaceae plant family. It is also found in small amounts in certain members of the Fabaceae (bean) family, including Acacia berlandieri.[3] Naturally derived mescaline powder extract. History and usage[edit] Peyote has been used for at least 5700 years by Native Americans in Mexico.[4] Europeans noted use of peyote in Native American religious ceremonies upon early contact, notably by the Huichols in Mexico. Potential medical usage[edit] Notable users[edit] Biosynthesis of mescaline[edit] Synthetic Mescaline[edit]

Scopolamine Scopolamine (USAN), hyoscine (BAN) also known as levo-duboisine or burundanga,[4] sold as Scopoderm, is a tropane alkaloid drug with muscarinic antagonist effects. It is among the secondary metabolites of plants from Solanaceae (nightshade) family of plants, such as henbane, jimson weed (Datura), angel's trumpets (Brugmansia), and corkwood (Duboisia).[5][6] Scopolamine exerts its effects by acting as a competitive antagonist at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, specifically M1 receptors[citation needed]; it is thus classified as an anticholinergic, antimuscarinic drug. (See the article on the parasympathetic nervous system for details of this physiology.) Its use in medicine is relatively limited, with its chief uses being in the treatment of motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.[2][7][8] Scopolamine is named after the plant genus Scopolia.[6] The name "hyoscine" is from the scientific name for henbane, Hyoscyamus niger.[9] Medical use[edit] Adverse effects[edit]

Caffeine Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.[10] It is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug. Unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. There are several known mechanisms of action to explain the effects of caffeine. The most prominent is that it reversibly blocks the action of adenosine on its receptor and consequently prevents the onset of drowsiness induced by adenosine. Caffeine also stimulates certain portions of the autonomic nervous system. Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline purine, a methylxanthine alkaloid, and is chemically related to the adenine and guanine bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Caffeine can have both positive and negative health effects. Caffeine is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS). Uses Medical Caffeine is used in: Enhancing performance Specific populations Children

Hordenine Hordenine, or N,N-dimethyltyramine, is an alkaloid of the phenethylamine class that occurs naturally in a variety of plants, taking its name from one of the commonest, barley (Hordeum species). Chemically, hordenine is the N-methyl derivative of N-methyltyramine, and the N,N-dimethyl derivative of the well-known biogenic amine tyramine, from which it is biosynthetically derived and with which it shares some pharmacological properties (see below). Currently,[1] hordenine is widely sold as an ingredient of nutritional supplements, with the claims that it is a stimulant of the central nervous system, and has the ability to promote weight loss by enhancing metabolism. In experimental animals, given sufficiently large doses parenterally (i.e. by injection), hordenine does produce an increase in blood pressure, as well as other disturbances of the cardio-vascular, respiratory and nervous systems. Occurrence[edit] Biosynthesis[edit] Chemistry[edit] Basicity[edit] Synthesis[edit] Pharmacology[edit]

Aporphine Aporphine is one of a class of quinoline alkaloids. Many different relatives of this compound have been purified from plants.[1] One commonly used aporphine derivative is apomorphine, although it does not occur naturally. Aporphine is a 5-HT1a partial agonist with a ki of 80nM and a 5-HT7 antagonist with a ki of 88nM.[2] Aporphine is a Dopamine D1 antagonist with a ki of 717nM[3] and a dopamine D2 antagonist with a ki of 527nM.[4] Aporphine and its related alkaloids bulbocapnine, boldine, glaucine and corytuberine are antipsychotic, exert naloxone-reversible antinociceptive activity and with the exception of corytuberine are anticonvulsant.[5] Some derivatives of aporphine such as S(+)-N-propylnorapomorphine have potential as low side effect profile antipsychotics. S(+)-N-propylnorapomorphine is highly selective for meso-limbic dopaminergic tracts and function as efficacious partial agonists, with no elevation in prolactin.[6] See also[edit] References[edit]

Stimulant Ritalin sustained-release (SR) 20 mg tablets Effects[edit] Medical uses[edit] Stimulants are used both individually and clinically for therapeutic purposes in the treatment of a number of indications, including the following: To counteract lethargy and fatigue throughout the day while at work or while doing other activitiesTo reduce sleepiness and to keep the person awake when necessary, as well as to treat narcolepsyTo decrease appetite and promote weight loss, as well as to treat obesityTo improve concentration and focus, and reduce restlessness and hyperactivity, especially for those with attentional disorders such as ADHDOccasionally, used off-label to treat clinical depression, in particular, non-typical depression and treatment-resistant depressionTo relieve nasal congestion and to treat orthostatic hypotension and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.To aid in smoking cessation. ADHD drugs[edit] Stimulants are the most commonly prescribed medications for ADHD. Ampakines[edit]

Tropane alkaloid Tropane alkaloids are a class of bicyclic [3.2.1] alkaloids and secondary metabolites that contain a tropane ring in their chemical structure. Tropane alkaloids occur naturally in many members of the plant family Solanaceae. Some tropane alkaloids have pharmacological properties and can acts as anticholinergics or stimulants. Anticholinergics[edit] Anticholinergic drugs and deliriants: All three acetylcholine-inhibiting chemicals can also be found in the leaves, stems, and flowers in varying, unknown amounts in Brugmansia (Angel Trumpets or Devil's Weed), a relative of Datura. Stimulants[edit] Stimulants and cocaine-related alkaloids: Cocaine, from Erythroxylum cocaEcgonine, a precursor and metabolite of cocaineBenzoylecgonine, a metabolite of cocaineHydroxytropacocaine, from Erythroxylum cocaMethylecgonine cinnamate, from Erythroxylum coca Others[edit] Non-natural tropanes[edit] There exist some synthetic analogs of tropane alkaloids, see Phenyltropanes See also[edit]

Nuciferine References[edit] Jump up ^ Bhattacharya SK, Bose R, Ghosh P, Tripathi VJ, Ray AB, Dasgupta B (Sep 1978). "Psychopharmacological studies on (—)-nuciferine and its Hofmann degradation product atherosperminine". Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 59 (1): 29–33. doi:10.1007/BF00428026. PMID 100809. See also[edit] Substituted amphetamine Substituted amphetamines are a chemical class of stimulants, entactogens, hallucinogens, and other drugs. They feature a phenethylamine core with a methyl group attached to the alpha carbon resulting in amphetamine, along with additional substitutions. Examples of amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, MDMA ("Ecstasy"), and DOM ("STP"). List of substituted amphetamines[edit] Structural formula of amphetamine History[edit] Although the basic compound of the class, amphetamine, was synthesized earlier, Ephedra was used 5000 years ago in China as a medicinal plant; its active ingredients are alkaloids ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine (phenylpropanolamine) and norpseudoephedrine (cathine). Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu and did not attract special attention.[2] MDMA was produced in 1912 (according to other sources in 1914[3]) as an intermediate product. Structure[edit] Legal status[edit] See also[edit]

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