Map projection More generally, the surfaces of planetary bodies can be mapped even if they are too irregular to be modeled well with a sphere or ellipsoid; see below. Even more generally, projections are the subject of several pure mathematical fields, including differential geometry and projective geometry. However "map projection" refers specifically to a cartographic projection. Background Maps can be more useful than globes in many situations: they are more compact and easier to store; they readily accommodate an enormous range of scales; they are viewed easily on computer displays; they can facilitate measuring properties of the terrain being mapped; they can show larger portions of the Earth's surface at once; and they are cheaper to produce and transport. However, Carl Friedrich Gauss's Theorema Egregium proved that a sphere's surface cannot be represented on a plane without distortion. For simplicity most of this article assumes that the surface to be mapped is that of a sphere.
2(a). Introduction to Maps Introduction A map can be simply defined as a graphic representation of the real world. This representation is always an abstraction of reality. Because of the infinite nature of our Universe it is impossible to capture all of the complexity found in the real world. Maps are used to display both cultural and physical features of the environment. The art of map construction is called cartography. Cartographers classify maps into two broad categories: reference maps and thematic maps. Map Projection The shape of the Earth's surface can be described as an ellipsoid. Representing the true shape of the Earth's surface on a map creates some problems, especially when this depiction is illustrated on a two-dimensional surface. The illustrations below show some of the common map projections used today. The second illustration displays a Mercator projection of the Earth (Figure 2a-3). Figure 2a-6 displays the Robinson projection. Map Scale Maps are rarely drawn at the same scale as the real world.
Textbook A textbook or coursebook (UK English) is a manual of instruction in any branch of study. Textbooks are produced according to the demands of educational institutions. Schoolbooks are textbooks and other books used in schools. Although most textbooks are only published in printed format, many are now available as online electronic books. History The ancient Greeks wrote texts intended for education. The Greek philosopher Socrates (469–399 B.C.) lamented the loss of knowledge because the media of transmission were changing. Before the invention of the Greek alphabet 2,500 years ago, knowledge and stories were recited aloud, much like Homer's epic poems. The next revolution for books came with the 15th-century invention of printing with changeable type. Compulsory education and the subsequent growth of schooling in Europe led to the printing of many standardized texts for children. Technological advances change the way people interact with textbooks. Market Bundling
Fundamentals of Mapping Some Commonly Used Map Projections This section outlines the features of a selection of more commonly used projects. It is by no means a full list projections which are commonly used today. Also, it describes each projection in its simplest form (eg only one Standard Parallel not two). Contents Introduction Comparison of these projections: Azimuthal Projection – Stereographic The oldest known record of this projection is from Ptolemy in about 150 AD. Today, this is probably one of the most widely used Azimuthal projections. This is a conformal projection in that shapes are well preserved over the map, although extreme distortions do occur towards the edge of the map. One interesting feature of the Stereographic projection is that any straight line which runs through the centre point is a Great Circle. These are two examples of maps using Stereographic projection over polar areas. Produced Using G.PROJECTOR – software developed by NASA and the Goddard Institute for Spatial Studies. UTM Zones
Hide and seek Mercator Projection by Matt T. Rosenberg The Mercator projection was developed in 1569 by Gerardus Mercator as a navigation tool. Like the Peters map, the grid is rectangular and lines of latitude and longitude are all parallel. The Mercator map has always been a poor projection for a world map yet due to its rectangular grid and shape, geographically illiterate publishers found it useful for wall maps, atlas maps, and maps in books and newspapers published by non-geographers. As far back as 1902, a cartographer warned, "People's ideas of geography are not founded on actual facts but on Mercator's map." Mercator Projection Fortunately, over the past few decades, the Mercator projection has fallen into disuse from many reliable sources. Thus, the resolution clearly called for the complete elimination use of the Mercator as well as the Peters projection. Next page > Alternatives > Page 1, 2, 3 Articles by Date | Articles by Topic
Map Projections Map Projections It is impossible to accurately represent the spherical surface of the earth on a flat piece of paper. While a globe can represent the planet accurately, a globe large enough to display most features of the earth at a usable scale would be too large to be useful, so we use maps. The term map projection can be thought of literally as a projection. Depending on the purpose of a map, the cartographer will attempt to eliminate distortion in one or several aspects of the map. Conformality - the shapes of places are accurate Distance - measured distances are accurate Area/Equivalence - the areas represented on the map are proportional to their area on the earth Direction - angles of direction are portrayed accurately A very famous projection is the Mercator Map. Mercator Projection Geradus Mercator invented his famous projection in 1569 as an aid to navigators. Robinson Projection Visit my Understanding Maps category of resources for great online map projection resources.
Family Life Today It does not take too much insight to realize that families today look much different from the way they did just a generation or two ago. The idyllic picture of mom, dad, and two or three children living happily down the street in the house with the white picket fence is just not as likely today. Family situations vary widely, and educators not only must know what those possibilities look like but must be ready to work effectively with diverse family patterns (Hildebrand, Phenice, Gray, & Hines, 2000). The Extended Family Not too many years ago, it was fairly common to find families and their relatives living in the same community or general area. Divorce and Single-Parent Families One of the most significant family situations that teachers will encounter is the single-parent family. Blended Families Divorce, as previously described, impacts a great many families. Gay and Lesbian Families A small but growing number of children in America have either two moms or two dads. Two-Career Families
How to Make an Amazing Treasure Hunt for Kids: 6 Steps Edit Article Whether it's too cold to play outside, a birthday party, or just an ordinary day, treasure hunts are a great, fun, and easy way to keep kids entertained. Here are ideas on how to stage a treasure hunt for kids. Ad Steps 1Know your audience. 6Make a great treasure! We could really use your help! Can you tell us aboutwriting? doughnut buns how to do a doughnut bun without a doughnut Can you tell us aboutparenting? parenting different ways to motivate children to take medication Can you tell us aboutgetting more involved? getting more involved how to get more involved Can you tell us abouthair and hairstyling? hair and hairstyling how to cut a side fringe Tips When preparing the clues, create the clues in reverse order - the treasure first, then the clue to find the treasure, then the clue to find that clue, etc. Warnings If necessary, always consult the owner of the location in which you are doing the treasure hunt.
psidesarrollo3equipo21 - TEMA 6 1. INTRODUCCIÓN El ser humano es un ser social que desde el momento de su nacimiento necesita poder establecer vínculos afectivos con las personas de su entorno, relaciones interpersonales íntimas relativamente estables, hecho este que se puede constatar como una conducta presente en todas las sociedades conocidas. Teorías del desarrollo socioafectivo:La teoría del apego (John Bowlby, 1958)La teoría del desarrollo psicosocial (Erikson, 1950)La teoría del desarrollo interpersonal (Bar-Yam, 1987)La teoría del apego El trabajo de Bowlby estuvo influenciado por Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) quien en sus estudios con gansos y patos en los años 50, reveló que las aves podían desarrollar un fuerte vínculo con la madre (teoría instintiva) sin que el alimento estuviera por medio. Pero fue Harry Harlow (1905-1981) y su descubrimiento de la necesidad universal de contacto quien le encaminó de manera decisiva en la construcción de la Teoría del Apego. 2. Autonomía frente vergüenza y duda. 3. 5.
MEDIA TECHNOLOGY NOT NEUTRAL - Most everyone thinks that media technologies are neutral, meaning that they are mere carriers or conduits for the content. In other words, we mostly assume that the media technologies are the "form" through which we receive the "content," such as the information, the images, the messages, and so on. Yet, as in the history of art, the form shapes the content and overall meaning of the artwork, from Polykleitos to Picasso to Pollock. If it is true that (technological) form shapes content for art and science, then it would seem to be true for human consciousness and destiny. When Marshall McLuhan stated that "the medium is the message" and the "medium is the massage," he meant that each media technology is an extension of human consciousness and perception and thus functions to shape how we think and understand the world. Perhaps the most overlooked media technology of the past few centuries have been the electric light and the telescope. • Space: We are not the center of the universe.