Independence Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory. Definition of independence Distinction between independence and autonomy Autonomy refers to a kind of independence which has been granted by an overseeing authority that itself still retains ultimate authority over that territory (see Devolution). Declarations of independence Historical overview Historically, there have been three major periods of declaring independence: Continents Notes See also References
Collectivism Collectivism can be divided into horizontal (or egalitarian) collectivism and vertical (or hierarchical) collectivism. Horizontal collectivism stresses collective decision-making among equal individuals, and is thus usually based on decentralization and egalitarianism. Vertical collectivism is based on hierarchical structures of power and on moral and cultural conformity, and is therefore based on centralization and hierarchy. A cooperative enterprise would be an example of horizontal collectivism, whereas a military hierarchy would be an example of vertical collectivism. Typology Collectivism has been used to refer to a diverse range of political and economic positions, including nationalism, direct democracy, representative democracy and monarchy. equality does not mean an equal amount but equal opportunity. . . Horizontal collectivists tend to favour democratic decision-making, while vertical collectivists believe in a strict chain of command. Culture and politics
Self-governance Self-governance is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization. It may refer to personal conduct or family units but more commonly refers to larger scale activities, i.e., professions, industry bodies, religions and political units (usually referred to as Local Government), up to and including autonomous regions and/or others within nation-states who enjoy some sovereign rights. It falls within the larger context of governance and principles such as consent of the governed, and may involve non-profit organizations and corporate governance. It can be used to describe a people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. Generally when self-governance of nation-states is discussed, it is called national sovereignty – a concept important in international law. A means of self-governance usually comprises at least the following: References Bird, C. (2000).
Individualism vs. Collectivism: Our Future, Our Choice The fundamental political conflict in America today is, as it has been for a century, individualism vs. collectivism. Does the individual’s life belong to him—or does it belong to the group, the community, society, or the state? With government expanding ever more rapidly—seizing and spending more and more of our money on “entitlement” programs and corporate bailouts, and intruding on our businesses and lives in increasingly onerous ways—the need for clarity on this issue has never been greater. Let us begin by defining the terms at hand. Individualism is the idea that the individual’s life belongs to him and that he has an inalienable right to live it as he sees fit, to act on his own judgment, to keep and use the product of his effort, and to pursue the values of his choosing. It’s the idea that the individual is sovereign, an end in himself, and the fundamental unit of moral concern. Individualism or collectivism—which of these ideas is correct? We’ll take them in turn. Because Mr.
Individual An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity. Individuality (or selfhood) is the state or quality of being an individual; particularly of being a person separate from other people and possessing his or her own needs or goals, rights and responsibilities. The exact definition of an individual is important in the fields of biology, law, and philosophy. From the 15th century and earlier (and also today within the fields of statistics and metaphysics) individual meant "indivisible", typically describing any numerically singular thing, but sometimes meaning "a person". Law in International law: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. in American law: A natural person is a human being. Philosophy Buddhism Empiricism Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel regarded history as the gradual evolution of Mind as it tests its own concepts against the external world. Existentialism Objectivism Biology See also References
- Individualism and collectivism — Moniviestin In individualistic value orientation, people are primarily concerned about themselves and their immediate family. In collectivistic value orientation, people's major concern is their ingroup or community. The ingroup is expected to look after an individual in exchange for loyalty. Belonging to an ingroup is verbalized in such daily communicative practices as greetings. Collectivism, and collective thinking is defined by Ethiopians as follows: "Thinking that originates from the influence of a traditional society, where more or less everything is collectively owned, where neighbourhoods live in unison sharing the pleasures and toils of life, and where interests seem to converge and overlap. Individualism is a characteristic tendency of industrialized societies. In spite of the assumption that the process of convergence towards a modern society is the same from culture to culture, a society can modernize and not lose valued elements of its tradition. © Liisa Salo-Lee, 2006
Existentialism Existentialism is a term applied to the work of certain late 19th- and 20th-century philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual. In existentialism, the individual's starting point is characterized by what has been called "the existential attitude", or a sense of disorientation and confusion in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world. Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. Definitional issues and background There has never been general agreement on the definition of existentialism. The term is often seen as an historical convenience as it was first applied to many philosophers in hindsight, long after they had died. Concepts The Absurd
Collectivist and individualist cultures | Psychology Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology | Social psychology:Altruism · Attribution · Attitudes · Conformity · Discrimination · Groups · Interpersonal relations · Obedience · Prejudice · Norms · Perception · Index · Outline This article is in need of attention from a psychologist/academic expert on the subject.Please help recruit one, or improve this page yourself if you are qualified.This banner appears on articles that are weak and whose contents should be approached with academic caution For judgments of value about collectivism and individualism, see individualism and collectivism. This article regards how 'collectivist' and 'individualist' are used descriptively in anthropology and the cultural psychology. Collectivism and individualism deeply pervade cultures. Traits of Collectivism Edit
Sovereignty Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity. It is a basic principle underlying the dominant Westphalian model of state foundation. Different approaches The concepts of sovereignty have been discussed throughout history, and are still actively debated. Its definition, concept, and application has changed throughout, especially during the Age of Enlightenment. History Classical The Roman jurist Ulpian observed that: The people transferred all their imperium and power to the Emperor. Ulpian was expressing the idea that the Emperor exercised a rather absolute form of sovereignty, that originated in the people, although he did not use the term expressly. Medieval We desire most from men,From men both lund and poor, To have sovereignty without lies. Reformation Views
Schwartz theory - Schwartz theory Authenticity Authenticity or authentic may refer to: Authentication, the act of confirming the truth of an attribute Arts and entertainment Authenticity in art, ways in which a work of art or an artistic performance may be considered authentic Music Authentic performance, an approach to the performance of classical musicAuthentic Records, a record labelAuthentic mode, a set of pitch organizations used in Gregorian chant Albums Other uses See also
Fatalism Fatalism is a philosophical doctrine stressing the subjugation of all events or actions to fate. Fatalism generally refers to any of the following ideas: The view that we are powerless to do anything other than what we actually do. Included in this is that man has no power to influence the future, or indeed, his own actions. This belief is very similar to predeterminism.An attitude of resignation in the face of some future event or events which are thought to be inevitable. Friedrich Nietzsche named this idea with "Turkish fatalism" in his book The Wanderer and His Shadow.That actions are free, but nevertheless work toward an inevitable end. This belief is very similar to compatibilist predestination.That acceptance is appropriate, rather than resistance against inevitability. This belief is very similar to defeatism. Determinism, fatalism and predeterminism Fatalism is a looser term than determinism. Likewise, determinism is a broader term than predeterminism.
Truth Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or to a standard or ideal. The commonly understood opposite of truth is falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also take on a logical, factual, or ethical meaning. The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy and religion. Many human activities depend upon the concept, where its nature as a concept is assumed rather than being a subject of discussion; these include most (but not all) of the sciences, law, and everyday life. Definition and etymology An angel carrying the banner of "Truth", Roslin, Midlothian Thus, 'truth' involves both the quality of "faithfulness, fidelity, loyalty, sincerity, veracity", and that of "agreement with fact or reality", in Anglo-Saxon expressed by sōþ (Modern English sooth). All Germanic languages besides English have introduced a terminological distinction between truth "fidelity" and truth "factuality".