Magic (paranormal) Magic or sorcery is an attempt to understand, experience and influence the world using rituals, symbols, actions, gestures and language. Modern Western magicians generally state magic's primary purpose to be personal spiritual growth. Modern theories of magic may see it as the result of a universal sympathy where some act can produce a result somewhere else, or as a collaboration with spirits who cause the effect. The belief in and the practice of magic has been present since the earliest human cultures and continues to have an important religious and medicinal role in many cultures today. Magic is often viewed with suspicion by the wider community, and is sometimes practiced in isolation and secrecy. The word "magic" derives via Latin magicus from the Greek adjective magikos (μαγικός) used in reference to the "magical" arts of the Persian Magicians (Greek: magoi, singular mágos, μάγος), the Zoroastrian astrologer priests of the ancient Persian Empire.
101 Simple Truths We Often Forget post written by: Marc Chernoff Email It‘s not where we stand but in what direction we are moving. Sometimes we find ourselves running in place, struggling to get ahead simply because we forget to address some of the simple truths that govern our potential to make progress. The acquisition of knowledge doesn’t mean you’re growing. Photo by: Alexander Steinhof If you enjoyed this article, check out our new best-selling book. And get inspiring life tips and quotes in your inbox (it's free)... Type theory In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is any of a class of formal systems, some of which can serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation for all mathematics. In type theory, every "term" has a "type" and operations are restricted to terms of a certain type. Two well-known type theories that can serve as mathematical foundations are Alonzo Church's typed λ-calculi and Per Martin-Löf's intuitionistic type theory. History The types of type theory were invented by Bertrand Russell in response to his discovery that Gottlob Frege's version of naive set theory was afflicted with Russell's paradox. The common usage of "type theory" is when those types are used with a term rewrite system. Basic concepts describes that the term has type . may be a type representing the natural numbers and may be inhabitants of that type. is written as A function in type theory is denoted with an arrow . (commonly called successor), has the judgement . instead of . and The term . . .
Democratic Party (United States) Since the 1930s, the party has promoted a social liberal platform. Until the late 20th century the party had a powerful conservative and populist wing based in the rural South, which over time has greatly diminished. Today its Congressional caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists. History The Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in opposition to the Federalist party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism, a weak federal government, states' rights, agrarian interests (especially Southern planters) and strict adherence to the Constitution; it opposed a national bank, close ties to Great Britain, and business and banking interests. The Party came to power in the election of 1800. 1860s 1900s Modern era Electoral history Name and symbols "A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion" by Thomas Nast.
Speculative reason Speculative reason or pure reason is theoretical (or logical, deductive) thought (sometimes called theoretical reason), as opposed to practical (active, willing) thought. The distinction between the two goes at least as far back as the ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle, who distinguished between theory (theoria, or a wide, bird's eye view of a topic, or clear vision of its structure) and practice (praxis), as well as techne. Speculative reason is contemplative, detached, and certain, whereas practical reason is engaged, involved, active, and dependent upon the specifics of the situation. Speculative reason provides the universal, necessary principles of logic, such as the principle of non-contradiction, which must apply everywhere, regardless of the specifics of the situation. Practical reason, on the other hand, is the power of the mind engaged in deciding what to do. It is also referred to as moral reason, because it involves action, decision, and particulars.
Capitalism The degree of competition, role of intervention and regulation, and scope of state ownership varies across different models of capitalism. Economists, political economists, and historians have taken different perspectives in their analysis of capitalism and recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire capitalism, welfare capitalism, crony capitalism and state capitalism; each highlighting varying degrees of dependency on markets, public ownership, and inclusion of social policies. The extent to which different markets are free, as well as the rules defining private property, is a matter of politics and policy. Many states have what are termed capitalist mixed economies, referring to a mix between planned and market-driven elements. Capitalism has existed under many forms of government, in many different times, places, and cultures. Following the demise of feudalism, capitalism became the dominant economic system in the Western world. Etymology
Proof theory Proof theory is important in philosophical logic, where the primary interest is in the idea of a proof-theoretic semantics, an idea which depends upon technical ideas in structural proof theory to be feasible. History Although the formalisation of logic was much advanced by the work of such figures as Gottlob Frege, Giuseppe Peano, Bertrand Russell, and Richard Dedekind, the story of modern proof theory is often seen as being established by David Hilbert, who initiated what is called Hilbert's program in the foundations of mathematics. Kurt Gödel's seminal work on proof theory first advanced, then refuted this program: his completeness theorem initially seemed to bode well for Hilbert's aim of reducing all mathematics to a finitist formal system; then his incompleteness theorems showed that this is unattainable. All of this work was carried out with the proof calculi called the Hilbert systems. In parallel, the foundations of structural proof theory were being founded. sentence.
Calm From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia CALM may refer to: Organisations Science/medicine terms Café-Au-Lait Macules ("spots") as seen in the medical condition neurofibromatosisCommunications, Air-interface, Long and Medium range, a standardized set of air interface protocols and parameters for medium and long range, high speed ITS communicationClathrin-assembly lymphoid myeloid leukaemia protein, a ubiquitous form of the AP180 clathrin adaptor protein in the synaptic vesicles of mammals Legislation Commercial Advertisement Loudness Mitigation Act, U.S. legislation prohibiting TV commercials from being louder than the program on which they are shown.Cliff Alleviation at the Last Minute Act, U.S. legislation introduced to ease problems related to the fiscal cliff Other uses The NASDAQ ticker for Cal-Maine Foods, Inc.
Value theory Value theory encompasses a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else. This investigation began in ancient philosophy, where it is called axiology or ethics. Early philosophical investigations sought to understand good and evil and the concept of "the good". Today much of value theory is scientifically empirical, recording what people do value and attempting to understand why they value it in the context of psychology, sociology, and economics. At the general level, there is a difference between moral and natural goods. Ethics is mainly focused on moral goods rather than natural goods, while economics has a concern in what is economically good for the society but not an individual person and is also interested in natural goods. Sociology Methods of study range from questionnaire surveys to participant observation. Economics Ethics and axiology
Cold Cold refers to the condition or subjective perception of having low temperature, the opposite of hot.[note 1] A lower bound to temperature is the absolute zero, defined as 0 K on the Kelvin scale, an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. This corresponds to −273.15 °C on the Celsius scale, −459.67 °F on the Fahrenheit scale, and 0 °R on the Rankine scale. Since temperature relates to the thermal energy held by an object or a sample of matter, which is the kinetic energy of the random motion of the particle constituents of matter, an object will have less thermal energy when it is colder and more when it is hotter. Cooling Cooling refers to the process of becoming cold, or lowering in temperature. Fluids used to cool objects are commonly called coolants. Air cooling is the process of cooling an object by exposing it to air. Another common method of cooling is exposing an object to ice, dry ice, or liquid nitrogen. Notable cold locations and objects See also Notes
Boy A boy is a young male human, usually child or adolescent. When he becomes an adult he's described as a man. The most apparent thing that differentiates a boy from a girl is that a boy typically has a penis while girls have a vagina. However, some intersex children with ambiguous genitals, and genetically female transgender children, may also be classified or self-identify as a boy. The term "boy" is primarily used to indicate biological sex distinctions, cultural gender role distinctions or both. The latter most commonly applies to adult men, either considered in some way immature or inferior, in a position associated with aspects of boyhood, or even without such boyish connotation as age-indiscriminate synonym. Etymology The word "boy" comes from Middle English boi, boye ("boy, servant"), related to other Germanic words for boy, namely East Frisian boi ("boy, young man") and West Frisian boai ("boy"). Characteristics of boys Uses of the term "boy" and related terms Military