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Four elements

Four elements
Segment of the macrocosm showing the elemental spheres of terra (earth), aqua (water), aer (air), and ignis (fire). Robert Fludd. 1617. Many philosophies and worldviews have a set of classical elements believed to reflect the simplest essential parts and principles of which anything can consist or upon which the constitution and fundamental powers of everything are based. Most frequently, classical elements refer to ancient concepts which some science writers compare to the modern states of matter, relating earth to the solid state, water to liquid, air to gaseous and fire to plasma.[1][2] Historians trace the evolution of modern theory pertaining to the chemical elements, as well as chemical compounds and mixtures of chemical substances to medieval, and Greek models. Ancient[edit] Cosmic elements in Babylonia[edit] Greece[edit] Plato characterizes the elements as being pre-Socratic in origin from a list created by the Sicilian philosopher Empedocles (ca. 450 BC). Medieval alchemy[edit]

Element Element or elements may refer to: Arts[edit] Film[edit] Elements trilogy, three films by Indian film-maker Deepa Mehta Literature[edit] Lower Elements, a fictional underground city in the Artemis Fowl world, created by Eoin Colfer Magazines[edit] Element Magazine, a men's lifestyle and fashion digital magazine published in Singapore since 2013 Music[edit] Automobiles[edit] Honda Element, a car Business[edit] Element by Westin, a brand of Starwood Hotels and Resorts WorldwideElement Skateboards, a skateboard manufacturer Chemistry and science[edit] Chemical element, a pure substance consisting of one type of atomElectrical element, an abstract part of a circuitHeating element, a device that generates heat by electrical resistanceOrbital elements, the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit of one body around anotherWeather, sometimes referred to as "the elements" Computing[edit] Law[edit] Mathematics[edit] Philosophy[edit] Places[edit] See also[edit]

Sylph Alchemy and literature[edit] As alchemy derived from the Swiss German alchemist Paracelsus, alchemists and related movements, such as Rosicrucianism, continued to speak of sylphs in their hermetic literature. The first mainstream discussion of sylphs comes with Alexander Pope.[citation needed] In Rape of the Lock, Pope satirizes French Rosicrucian and alchemical writings when he invents a theory to explain the sylph. In a parody of heroic poetry and the "dark" and "mysterious" literature of pseudo-science, and in particular the sometimes esoterically Classical heroic poetry of the 18th century in England and France, Pope pretends to have a new alchemy, in which the sylph is the mystically, chemically condensed humors of peevish women. Willow, in Terry Brooks' Magic Kingdom of Landover series is a sylph and the wife of protagonist Ben Holiday. Fairy link[edit] Sylph has passed into general language as a term for minor spirits, elementals, or faeries of the air. See also[edit]

Structure of the Earth Structure of the Earth Assumptions[edit] The force exerted by Earth's gravity can be used to calculate its mass, and by estimating the volume of the Earth, its average density can be calculated. Astronomers can also calculate Earth's mass from its orbit and effects on nearby planetary bodies. Structure[edit] Earth's radial density distribution according to the preliminary reference earth model (PREM).[1] Earth's gravity according to the preliminary reference earth model (PREM).[1] Comparison to approximations using constant and linear density for Earth's interior. The layering of Earth has been inferred indirectly using the time of travel of refracted and reflected seismic waves created by earthquakes. Core[edit] The average density of Earth is 5,515 kg/m3. The inner core was discovered in 1936 by Inge Lehmann and is generally believed to be composed primarily of iron and some nickel. Mantle[edit] World map showing the position of the Moho. Crust[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Plasma (physics) Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, "anything formed"[1]) is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and gas). When air or gas is ionized plasma forms with similar conductive properties to that of metals. Plasma is the most abundant form of matter in the Universe, because most stars are in plasma state.[2][3] Artist's rendition of the Earth's plasma fountain, showing oxygen, helium, and hydrogen ions that gush into space from regions near the Earth's poles. The faint yellow area shown above the north pole represents gas lost from Earth into space; the green area is the aurora borealis, where plasma energy pours back into the atmosphere.[6] Plasma is loosely described as an electrically neutral medium of positive and negative particles (i.e. the overall charge of a plasma is roughly zero). Range of plasmas. For plasma to exist, ionization is necessary. Lightning is an example of plasma present at Earth's surface.

Volcano A 2007 eruptive column at Mount Etna producing volcanic ash, pumice and lava bombs Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador, a close up aerial view of the nested summit calderas and craters, along with the crater lake as seen from a United States Air Force C-130 Hercules flying above El Salvador. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. Etymology Plate tectonics Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (OSR – Oceanic Spreading Ridges) and recent sub aerial volcanoes. Divergent plate boundaries Convergent plate boundaries Subduction zones are places where two plates, usually an oceanic plate and a continental plate, collide. "Hotspots" Volcanic features Lava domes

Elemental Magical entity who embodies/personifies one of the four classical elements History[edit] The elements of earth, water, air, and fire, were classed as the fundamental building blocks of nature. This system prevailed in the Classical world and was highly influential in medieval natural philosophy. Although Paracelsus uses these foundations and the popular preexisting names of elemental creatures, he is doing so to present new ideas which expand on his own philosophical system. Paracelsus[edit] In his 16th-century work A Book on Nymphs, Sylphs, Pygmies, and Salamanders, and on the Other Spirits, Paracelsus identified mythological beings as belonging to one of the four elements. Of the names he used, gnomus, undina, and sylph are all thought to have appeared first in Paracelsus' works, though undina is a fairly obvious Latin derivative from the word unda meaning "wave." In De Meteoris he referred to the elementals collectively as Sagani.[6] Other authors and beliefs[edit] Twentieth century[edit]

Paracelsus Swiss physician, philosopher, theologian, and alchemist (c. 1493–1541) Paracelsus (; German: [paʁaˈtsɛlzʊs]; c. 1493[1] – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim[11][12]), was a Swiss[13] physician, alchemist, lay theologian, and philosopher of the German Renaissance.[14][15] He was a pioneer in several aspects of the "medical revolution" of the Renaissance, emphasizing the value of observation in combination with received wisdom. He is credited as the "father of toxicology".[16] Paracelsus also had a substantial impact as a prophet or diviner, his "Prognostications" being studied by Rosicrucians in the 1600s. Paracelsianism is the early modern medical movement inspired by the study of his works.[17] Biography[edit] Early career[edit] The Louvre copy of the lost portrait by Quentin Matsys,[26] source of the iconographic tradition of "fat" Paracelsus.[27] Basel (1526–1528)[edit] I cannot offer thee Later career[edit]

Alchemy The Emerald Tablet, a key text of Western Alchemy, in a 17th-century edition Alchemy is an influential philosophical tradition whose practitioners have, from antiquity, claimed it to be the precursor to profound powers. The defining objectives of alchemy are varied, but historically have typically included one or more of the following goals: the creation of the fabled philosopher's stone; the ability to transform base metals into the noble metals (gold or silver); and development of an elixir of life, which would confer youth and longevity. Overview[edit] Alchemy is the art of liberating parts of the Cosmos from temporal existence and achieving perfection which, for metals is gold, and for man, longevity, then immortality and, finally, redemption. Modern discussions of alchemy are generally split into an examination of its exoteric practical applications and its esoteric aspects. Relation to the science of chemistry[edit] Scientific apparatus in the alchemist's workshop, 1580 Q.

Styx Etching of G. Doré The Styx (/stɪks/; Ancient Greek: Στύξ [stýkʰs], "Hate, Detest") is a river in Greek mythology that formed the boundary between Earth and the Underworld (often called Hades which is also the name of this domain's ruler). The rivers Styx, Phlegethon, Acheron, and Cocytus all converge at the center of the underworld on a great marsh, which is also sometimes called the Styx. According to Herodotus the river Styx originates near Feneos.[1] The gods were bound by the Styx and swore oaths on it. In ancient times some believed that placing a coin in the mouth[3] of the deceased would help pay the toll for the ferry to help cross the Acheron river which would lead one to the entrance of the underworld. The variant spelling Stix was sometimes used in translations of Classical Greek before the 20th century.[4] By metonymy, the adjective stygian (/ˈstɪdʒiən/) came to refer to anything dark, dismal, and murky. Goddess[edit] Science[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit] External links[edit]

Twelve Olympians Greek mythology is explicitly embodied in a large collection of narratives, and implicitly in Greek representational arts, such as vase-paintings and votive gifts. Greek myth attempts to explain the origins of the world, and details the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, heroines, and mythological creatures. These accounts initially were disseminated in an oral-poetic tradition; today the Greek myths are known primarily from Greek literature. Archaeological findings provide a principal source of detail about Greek mythology, with gods and heroes featured prominently in the decoration of many artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. Sources Literary sources The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages was primarily composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise. Archaeological sources Survey of mythic history Origins of the world and the gods