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Using another author's work as if it was one's own original work Not all countries hold the same beliefs about personal ownership of language or ideas. While some, such as India and Poland, consider plagiarism to be a crime liable for imprisonment,[19] in other countries the reiteration of another professional's work can be a sign of respect or flattery.[20] Students who move to the United States and other Western countries from countries where plagiarism is not frowned upon may find the transition difficult.[21] Etymology and ancient history[edit] In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word "plagiarius" (literally "kidnapper") to denote stealing someone else's creative work was pioneered by the Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses". Legal aspects[edit] Plagiarism is not the same as copyright infringement. In academia and journalism[edit] Academia[edit] Forms of academic plagiarism[edit] Sanctions for student plagiarism[edit] Journalism[edit]

Fair use Exception to the exclusive right granted by copyright law to the author of a creative work Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder. Fair use is one of the limitations to copyright intended to balance the interests of copyright holders with the public interest in the wider distribution and use of creative works by allowing as a defense to copyright infringement claims certain limited uses that might otherwise be considered infringement.[1] Like "fair dealing" rights that exist in most countries with a British legal history, the fair use right is a general exception that applies all different kinds of uses with all types of works and turns on a flexible proportionality test that examines the purpose of the use, the amount used, and the impact of the market on the original work. History[edit] U.S. fair use factors[edit] The U.S. 1. 2. 3. 4. The U.S. U.S.

Cyberbullying For the Wikipedia guidance essay, see Wikipedia:Cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is the use of Information Technology to harm or harass other people in a deliberate, repeated, and hostile manner.[1] According to U.S. Legal Definitions, Cyber-bullying could be limited to posting rumors or gossips about a person in the internet bringing about hatred in other’s minds; or it may go to the extent of personally identifying victims and publishing materials severely defaming and humiliating them.[2] With the increase in use of these technologies, cyberbullying has become increasingly common, especially among teenagers.[3] Awareness has also risen, due in part to high profile cases like the Suicide of Tyler Clementi.[4] Definition Legal definition Cyberbullying is defined in legal glossaries as Examples of what constitutes cyberbullying include communications that seek to intimidate, control, manipulate, put down, falsely discredit, or humiliate the recipient. Cyberbullying vs. Methods Used In Gaming

Cyber Bullying Statistics - Bullying Statistics Cyber bullying statistics refers to Internet bullying. Cyber bullying is a form of teen violence that can do lasting harm to young people. Bullying statistics show that cyber bullying is a serious problem among teens. By being more aware of cyber bullying, teens and adults can help to fight it. Cyber bullying affects many adolescents and teens on a daily basis. Sending mean messages or threats to a person’s email account or cell phoneSpreading rumors online or through textsPosting hurtful or threatening messages on social networking sites or web pagesStealing a person’s account information to break into their account and send damaging messagesPretending to be someone else online to hurt another personTaking unflattering pictures of a person and spreading them through cell phones or the InternetSexting, or circulating sexually suggestive pictures or messages about a person Cyber bullying can be very damaging to adolescents and teens. Sources:

Home | Evolution of morality The evolution of morality refers to the emergence of human moral behavior over the course of human evolution. Morality can be defined as a system of ideas about right and wrong conduct. In everyday life, morality is typically associated with human behavior and not much thought is given to the social conducts of other creatures. The emerging fields of evolutionary biology and in particular sociobiology have argued that, though human social behaviors are complex, the precursors of human morality can be traced to the behaviors of many other social animals. Sociobiological explanations of human behavior are still controversial. Animal sociality[edit] The basic reason that social animals live in groups is that opportunities for survival and reproduction are much better in groups than living alone. Primate sociality[edit] Humanity’s closest living relatives are common chimpanzees and bonobos. All social animals have hierarchical societies in which each member knows its own place. Disgust[edit]

DIY Online Reputation Management for Small Businesses 293 Flares Twitter 255 Facebook 17 Google+ 21 Pin It Share 0 293 Flares × Every business needs to be concerned about their online reputation. These potential customers will look for both good and bad reviews about your company. Monitor What’s Being Said This first thing a small business should do is monitor what’s being said. Brand Yourself sends e-mail alerts when results you control drop off Google’s first page or break into Google’s first page. You need to identify review websites that list your business for review by customers. How to Respond to Bad Reviews Generally there are three types of companies when it comes to customer complaints. 1) Businesses that ignore and/or don’t realize they are getting negative reviews. 2) Businesses that know they are getting bad reviews but lack the resources or leadership to respond or turn things around. 3) Then there are businesses that are proactive and respond and engage the poor experience. Not all bad reviews are bad. Control the SERPS

Stanford Copyright and Fair Use Center What Is Fair Use? - Copyright Overview by Rich Stim - Stanford Copyright and Fair Use Center In its most general sense, a fair use is any copying of copyrighted material done for a limited and “transformative” purpose, such as to comment upon, criticize, or parody a copyrighted work. Such uses can be done without permission from the copyright owner. In other words, fair use is a defense against a claim of copyright infringement. If your use qualifies as a fair use, then it would not be considered an infringement. So what is a “transformative” use? Most fair use analysis falls into two categories: (1) commentary and criticism, or (2) parody. Commentary and Criticism If you are commenting upon or critiquing a copyrighted work—for instance, writing a book review—fair use principles allow you to reproduce some of the work to achieve your purposes. The underlying rationale of this rule is that the public reaps benefits from your review, which is enhanced by including some of the copyrighted material. Parody So what is a “transformative” use? Commentary and Criticism Parody

Ethics and Compliance Survey Results Conflicts of interest and sexual harassment are the priority themes that Ethics and Compliance officers will be communicating in the coming months, according to our survey at SCCE’s Compliance & Ethics conference in Chicago last week (September 2016). Often regarded as two of the most difficult behaviors to effect change, it’s a positive sign that organizations remain determined to improve internal culture and not shy away from promoting good ethics, says SnapComms CEO, Sarah Perry, “In the past 12 months, we’ve experienced a threefold increase in enquiries from organizations looking for better ways to communicate these and other ethics-related topics. “Our experience reflects other external indicative factors*, which prove there is now greater value placed on promoting the right behavior within the workplace. There’s a noticeable shift taking place.” But this movement is not without its obstacles. Sarah Perry agrees. Learn more about SnapComms compliance communication solution

The Struggle Between Copyright and the Internet | Glyn Moody | January 18, 2012 may well go down as a pivotal date in the history of the Internet – and of copyright. For on that day, the English-language Wikipedia and thousands of other websites were blacked out or modified to protest against two bills passing through the US legislative system that were designed to fight copyright infringement. To understand why that unprecedented action took place, and what it means for the future of the Net, it’s necessary to review the history of copyright briefly. Copyright law has its origins in attempts by the governments of Europe to control and regulate the Internet of its day, the printing press, then still relatively new. In England, the first copyright privilege – literally a monopoly right to make copies of certain books – was granted in 1518. This continued until 1694, when the monopoly of the Stationers’ Company was abolished. The Statute of Anne was enacted in 1710 to provide for copyright and censorship.

Copyright and Fair Use | Office of the General Counsel The guide set forth below is available in PDF here: Copyright and Fair Use: A Guide for the Harvard Community. You may also read frequently asked questions concerning copyright and privacy for more information. Copyright and Fair Use: A Guide for the Harvard Community Basics of Copyright What is copyright? Fair Use of Copyrighted Material What is "fair use"? Copyright and Permissions at Harvard How do I determine whether or not copyright should be in Harvard's name? Copyright © 2016 President and Fellows of Harvard College Basics of Copyright What is copyright? Copyright is the lawful right of an author, artist, composer or other creator to control the use of his or her work by others. There are exceptions to this rule—notably the fair use doctrine discussed in the following Section—but generally the unauthorized use of a copyrighted work is copyright infringement, and may subject the infringer to civil and criminal penalties under federal law. Why is copyright necessary? What can be copyrighted?

How can I make sure that I avoid plagiarism?

It is important that you check your work to avoid plagiarism. ( Studying for a taught degree looks at what plagiarism is, and at a number of strategies you can use to make sure you do not commit this academic crime.) You should read that section again now. If you commit plagiarism unintentionally as part of an assignment you might be allowed to resubmit the work, or you may even pass the taught part of the course despite the fail mark you will get for that piece of work. Plagiarism in your thesis or dissertation, however, will almost certainly guarantee that you fail and are not awarded a degree.

by raviii Sep 17

Plagiarism. To use someone else's ideas, words, sentences as if your own, without acknowledging their name.

Found in Glossary: 2011 - (Jesson, et al.) Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques by raviii Apr 16