Gods of Ancient Egypt: Seshat Seshat (Sesha, Sesheta or Safekh-Aubi) was a goddess of reading, writing, arithmetic and architecture who was seen as either the female aspect of Thoth, his daughter or his wife. They had a child called Hornub. This actually means "gold Horus", so Seshat was sometimes associated with Isis. She was the scribe of the pharaoh, recording all of his achievements and triumphs including recording both the booty and the captives taken in battle. She was also thought to record the actions of all people on the leaves of the sacred persea tree. She was known by the epithet "Mistress of the House of Books" because she looked after the library of the gods and was the patron of all earthly libraries. She was also given the epithet "Mistress of the House of Architects" and from at least the Second Dynasty she was associated with a ritual known as "pedj shes" ("stretching the cord") which was conducted during the laying of the foundations of stone buildings. copyright J Hill 2010
Thoth Thoth played many vital and prominent roles in Egyptian mythology, such as maintaining the universe, and being one of the two deities (the other being Ma'at) who stood on either side of Ra's boat. In the later history of ancient Egypt, Thoth became heavily associated with the arbitration of godly disputes, the arts of magic, the system of writing, the development of science, and the judgment of the dead. Name Etymology The Egyptian pronunciation of ḏḥwty is not fully known, but may be reconstructed as *ḏiḥautī, based on the Ancient Greek borrowing Θώθ [tʰɔːtʰ] Thōth or Theut and the fact that it evolved into Sahidic Coptic variously as Thoout, Thōth, Thoot, Thaut as well as Bohairic Coptic Thōout. According to Theodor Hopfner, Thoth's Egyptian name written as ḏḥwty originated from ḏḥw, claimed to be the oldest known name for the Ibis although normally written as hbj. Further names and spellings Depictions Attributes Mythology History
Nut (goddess) Nut (/nʌt/ or /nuːt/) or Neuth (/nuːθ/ or /njuːθ/; also spelled Nuit or Newet) was the goddess of the sky in the Ennead of Egyptian mythology. She was seen as a star-covered nude woman arching over the earth, or as a cow. Great goddess Nut with her wings stretched across a coffin A sacred symbol of Nut was the ladder, used by Osiris to enter her heavenly skies. This ladder-symbol was called maqet and was placed in tombs to protect the deceased, and to invoke the aid of the deity of the dead. Nut and her brother, Geb, may be considered enigmas in the world of mythology. A huge cult developed about Osiris that lasted well into Roman times. The sky goddess Nut depicted as a cow Ra, the sun god, was the second to rule the world, according to the reign of the gods. Some of the titles of Nut were: Nut was the goddess of the sky and all heavenly bodies, a symbol of protecting the dead when they enter the after life. Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill.
Maat The earliest surviving records indicating Maat is the norm for nature and society, in this world and the next, were recorded during the Old Kingdom, the earliest substantial surviving examples being found in the Pyramid Texts of Unas (ca. 2375 BCE and 2345 BCE). Later, as a goddess in other traditions of the Egyptian pantheon, where most goddesses were paired with a male aspect, her masculine counterpart was Thoth and their attributes are the same. After the rise of Ra they were depicted together in the Solar Barque. After her role in creation and continuously preventing the universe from returning to chaos, her primary role in Egyptian mythology dealt with the weighing of souls that took place in the underworld, Duat. Her feather was the measure that determined whether the souls (considered to reside in the heart) of the departed would reach the paradise of afterlife successfully. Maat as a principle Winged Maat Maat and the law Maat wearing feather of truth See also
Seshat, Female Scribe, Goddess of Writing Measurement, A Feature Tour Egypt Story Seshat, Female Scribe, Goddess of Writing Measurement By Caroline Seawright Seshat (Sashet, Sesheta), meaning 'female scribe', was seen as the goddess of writing, historical records, accounting and mathematics, measurement and architecture to the ancient Egyptians. She was depicted as a woman wearing a panther-skin dress (the garb of the funerary stm priests) and a headdress that was also her hieroglyph - - which may represent either a stylized flower or seven pointed star on a standard that is beneath a set of down-turned horns. She was believed to appear to assist the pharaoh at various times, and who kept a record of his life: It was she who recorded the time allotted to him by the gods for his stay on earth. She was associated with the pharaoh at the 'stretching the cord' foundation ritual, where she assisted the pharaoh with the measuring process. - Cyril Fagan, Zodiacs Old and New (1951) Seshat has no temples that have been found, though she did have a priesthood in early times.
Egyptian pantheon The gods' complex characteristics were expressed in myths and in intricate relationships between deities: family ties, loose groups and hierarchies, and combinations of separate gods into one. Deities' diverse appearances in art—as animals, humans, objects, and combinations of different forms—also alluded, through symbolism, to their essential features. In different eras, various gods were said to hold the highest position in divine society, including the solar deity Ra, the mysterious god Amun, and the mother goddess Isis. Gods were believed to be present throughout the world, capable of influencing natural events and human lives. Definition The beings in ancient Egyptian tradition who might be labeled as deities are difficult to count. The Egyptians distinguished nṯrw, "gods", from rmṯ, "people", but the meanings of the Egyptian and the English terms do not match perfectly. Origins Late Predynastic statue of the baboon god Hedj-Wer Characteristics Roles
Geb Name The name was pronounced as such from the Greek period onward and was formerly erroneously read as Seb or as Keb. The original Egyptian was perhaps "Gebeb"/"Kebeb". It was spelled with either initial -g- (all periods), or with -k-point (gj). Role and development Goose Some Egyptologists, (specifically Jan Bergman, Terence Duquesne or Richard H. This bird-sign is used only as a phonogram in order to spell the name of the god (H.te Velde, in: Lexikon der Aegyptologie II, lemma: Geb). Similar images of this divine bird are to be found on temple walls (Karnak, Deir el-Bahari), showing a scene of the king standing on a papyrus raft and ritually plucking papyrus for the Theban god Amun-Re-Kamutef. Notes Jump up ^ cf. Ogdoad In Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad (Greek "ογδοάς", the eightfold) were eight deities worshipped in Hermopolis during what is called the Old Kingdom, the third through sixth dynasties, dated between 2686 to 2134 BC. In Egyptian mythology Together the four concepts represent the primal, fundamental state of the beginning. They are what always was. In the myth, however, their interaction ultimately proved to be unbalanced, resulting in the arising of a new entity. When the entity opened, it revealed Ra, the fiery sun, inside. The entity containing Ra is depicted either as an egg or as a lotus bud. In the former version, a mound arises from the waters. In Gnosticism The number eight plays an important part in Gnostic systems, and it is necessary to distinguish the different forms in which it appeared at different stages in the development of Gnosticism. 7 + 1 Seven heavens Eighth sphere The mysteries of the number seven are treated of by Clem. 6 + 2 4 + 4
Ancient Egypt: the - Seshat (Seshet, Sesheta) Symbols: seven-pointed star or flower atop a pole, palm branch, writing pen and palette, papyrus scrolls and books Seshat was an ancient goddess of writing and measurement. Throughout Egypt's history, Seshat was shown recording the number of captives and other booty taken during the king's military campaigns. Seshat was portrated as a woman wearing a dress and the priestly leopard skin. Seshat carried many titles, such as "Lady of Builders", "Mistress of Books", and "Foremost in the Library". Digg This! Del.icio.us Stumble Upon
Duat This article is about the Egyptian underworld. For the evergreen tree, see Jambul. For the aviation weather service, see DUATS. In Egyptian mythology, Duat (pronounced "do-aht") (also Tuat and Tuaut or Akert, Amenthes, Amenti, or Neter-khertet) is the realm of the dead. What we know of the Duat principally derives from funerary texts such as Book of Gates, Book of Caverns, Coffin Texts, Amduat and the Book of the Dead. A section of the Egyptian Book of the Dead written on papyrus showing the Weighing of the Heart in Duat where Anubis can be seen on the far right, the scales are shown with the feather balance, and Ammit awaits hearts that she must devour – the presence of Osiris at the gateway to the paradise of Aaru dates the papyrus to a late tradition of the myth. The geography of Duat is similar in outline to the world the Egyptians knew. If the deceased successfully passed these unpleasant demons, he or she would reach the Weighing of the Heart. References Bibliography Faulkner, R.
Ancient Egyptian religion Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with many deities who were believed to be present in, and in control of, the forces and elements of nature. The practices of Egyptian religion were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaoh, the king of Egypt. Although a human, the Pharaoh was believed to be descended from the gods. Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for their help through prayer or compelling them to act through magic. The religion had its roots in Egypt's prehistory and lasted for more than 3,000 years. Theology The beliefs and rituals now referred to as "Ancient Egyptian religion" were integral within every aspect of Egyptian culture. Deities The gods Osiris, Anubis, and Horus, in order from left to right Associations between deities Atenism
Sphinx Perhaps the first sphinx, Queen Hetepheres II from the fourth dynasty (Cairo Museum) A sphinx (Greek: Σφίγξ /sphinx/. Bœotian: Φίξ /Phix) is a mythical creature with, as a minimum, the body of a lion and a human head. In Greek tradition, it has the haunches of a lion, sometimes with the wings of a great bird, and the face of a human. In European decorative art, the sphinx enjoyed a major revival during the Renaissance. Generally the role of sphinxes is associated with architectural structures such as royal tombs or religious temples. Back of Sphinx, Giza Egypt Egyptian sphinxes The largest and most famous sphinx is the Great Sphinx of Giza, situated at the Giza Plateau adjacent to the Great Pyramids of Giza on the west bank of the Nile River and facing due east ( WikiMiniAtlas 29°58′31″N 31°08′15″E / 29.97528°N 31.13750°E / 29.97528; 31.13750). Perhaps the first sphinx in Egypt was one depicting Queen Hetepheres II, of the fourth dynasty that lasted from 2723 to 2563 BC.
Seshat The Egyptian Goddess Areas of Influence: Seshat was associated with the written word. She invented writing and kept the records of the ancient Pharaoh’s. Recording details of the spoils of successful foreign campaigns, noting the number of captives and treasures taken from the conquered lands. The scribe Goddess took care of Thoth's library of scrolls and spells. For these duties she was given the title of Mistress of the House of Books and even today she is considered the patron Goddess of librarians. Astronomy, astrology, geometry, architecture and accountancy are other areas of expertise that this Goddess shared with mankind. She combined these gifts to calculate the days of life the Pharaoh had to live and to work out the dimensions of his temple and tomb, ensuring his immortality. As a funerary Goddesses was described in texts as being pregnant with the deceased, as she was responsible for keeping the memory of the dead alive by writing down accounts of their life. Strengths: Clever and logical. The Scribe:
Horus Horus is one of the oldest and most significant deities in ancient Egyptian religion, who was worshipped from at least the late Predynastic period through to Greco-Roman times. Different forms of Horus are recorded in history and these are treated as distinct gods by Egypt specialists. These various forms may possibly be different perceptions of the same multi-layered deity in which certain attributes or syncretic relationships are emphasized, not necessarily in opposition but complementary to one another, consistent with how the Ancient Egyptians viewed the multiple facets of reality. He was most often depicted as a falcon, most likely a lanner or peregrine, or as a man with a falcon head. Etymology Horus was also known as Nekheny, meaning "falcon". Some have proposed that Nekheny may have been another falcon-god, worshipped at Nekhen (city of the hawk), with which Horus was identified from early on. Note of changes over time Horus and the pharaoh Sky god