background preloader

Top 20 Figures of Speech - Definitions and Examples

Top 20 Figures of Speech - Definitions and Examples
By Richard Nordquist Updated September 22, 2015. A figure of speech is a rhetorical device that achieves a special effect by using words in distinctive ways. Though there are hundreds of figures of speech (many of them included in our Tool Kit for Rhetorical Analysis), here we'll focus on just 20 of the most common figures. You will probably remember many of these terms from your English classes. But the fact is, whether we're conscious of it or not, we use figures of speech every day in our own writing and conversations. For example, common expressions such as "falling in love," "racking our brains," "hitting a sales target," and "climbing the ladder of success" are all metaphors--the most pervasive figure of all. Using original figures of speech in our writing is a way to convey meanings in fresh, unexpected ways. continue reading below our video Loaded: 0% Progress: 0% For advice on creating figures of speech, see Using Similes and Metaphors to Enrich Our Writing. The Top 20 Figures

Textual scholarship Textual scholarship (or textual studies) is an umbrella term for disciplines that deal with describing, transcribing, editing or annotating texts and physical documents. Textual research is mainly historically oriented. Textual scholars study, for instance, how writing practices and printing technology has developed, how a certain writer has written and revised his texts, how literary documents have been edited, the history of reading culture, as well as censorship and the authenticity of texts. The subjects, methods and theoretical backgrounds of textual research vary widely, but what they have in common is an interest in the genesis and derivation of texts and textual variation in these practices. Disciplines of textual scholarship include, among others, textual criticism, stemmatology, paleography, genetic criticism (critique génétique), bibliography and history of the book. References[edit] Jump up ^ Greetham, David C.: Textual Scholarship. Further reading[edit] External links[edit]

Editing "Quarters of the news editor," one of a group of four photos in the 1900 brochure, Seattle and the Orient, which was collectively captioned, "The Seattle Daily Times—Editorial Department." Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual, audible and film media used to convey information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent, accurate and complete work.[1] The editing process often begins with the author's idea for the work itself, continuing as a collaboration between the author and the editor as the work is created. Print media Editors work on producing an issue of Bild,West Berlin, 1977. There are various editorial positions in publishing. The top editor at many publications may be known as the chief editor, executive editor, or simply the editor. Copy editors correct spelling, grammar and align writings to house style. Executive editor Periodicals

Writing process Researchers' first attempts to understand what is now called the writing process began in the early 1970s. Now a key concept in the teaching of writing and in the research of composition studies, "process" scholars were instrumental in shifting the focus of teachers' attention from students' written products to students' writing processes. Composing process research was pioneered by scholars such as Janet Emig in The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders (1971),[1] Sondra Perl in "The Composing Processes of Unskilled College Writers" (1979),[2] and Linda Flower and John R. Hayes in "A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing" (1981).[3] Since writing interrelates with external pressures, students benefit most from writing instruction when it provides them with a sense of how what they write can be connected to the world outside of the classroom. The rest of this page will focus on the writing process as a term used in teaching. Approaches to the Process[edit] Overview of Cognitive model[edit]

A Liberal Education, by Thomas Henry Huxley (page two) - Classic British Essays Continued from page one Those who take honours in Nature’s university, who learn the laws which govern men and things and obey them, are the really great and successful men in this world. The great mass of mankind are the “Poll,” who pick up just enough to get through without much discredit. Those who won’t learn at all are plucked; and then you can’t come up again. Nature’s pluck means extermination. Thus the question of compulsory education is settled so far as Nature is concerned. The object of what we commonly call education--that education in which man intervenes and which I shall distinguish as artificial education--is to make good these defects in Nature’s methods; to prepare the child to receive Nature’s education, neither incapably nor ignorantly, nor with willful disobedience; and to understand the preliminary symptoms of her pleasure, without waiting for the box on the ear.

Dr. Rod Ellis: TESOL Written Corrective Feedback - Professor Rod Ellis, gave a presentation which is available on In it, he focuses on written corrective feedback. I’ve written a basic summary below. Running time: 1:09:08 Why do we give written corrective feedback? To enable learners to revise their own writing, i.e. produce a better second draftTo assist learner to acquire correct English A Typology of corrective feedback types Strategies for providing corrective feedbackHow learners respond to the feedback Written corrective feedback strategies 1. Teachers provide correct form, i.e. crossing out an unnecessary word, phrase or morpheme, inserting a missing word, phrase or morpheme, inserting a missing word or morpheme, and writing the correct form above or near to the erroneous form (Ferris 2006) Advantage – Provides learners with explicit guidance about how to correct their errors. * The effect of focused written corrective feedback and language aptitude on ESL learners. 2. Advantages Disadvantages 4. 1. 2. 5. 6. Conclusion

Use These 4 Simple Tips to Create Engaging Text for eLearning | Zembl - elearning authoring tool The correct use of text in elearning is a dark art. Do you spend more time cutting text out than actually creating it? Do you worry that too much text will have your learners switching off? Text doesn’t deserve a bad reputation. If you use text correctly, it can be a brilliant and easy way to get your learners to engage with your course. It’s time to stop treating text like the enemy! 1) Use engaging language One trick for making your text more appealing, is to take a critical look at your use of language. The first change you should make, is to always use active voice, rather than passive voice. When you write a sentence in active voice, the subject performs the action, e.g “the learner completed the course.” Active voice gives your sentences an energy and directness that motivates the learner to continue reading. Your text should be clear and concise, so rewrite it until you’re confident that you’re communicating your point in as few words as possible. 2) Make your text interactive

Potato crisps - download article Processing methods for crisp manufacture vary greatly but generally take the form of washing, peeling, trimming, sorting, slicing, rinsing, partial drying, frying, salting, flavouring, cooling and packaging. Potatoes are first washed with drum or flotation washers being usually used. Stones, sand, dirt and any extraneous matter are removed. Potatoes are elevated into washers and peeled by abrasion. Peeled potatoes are trimmed to remove eyes, bruises and decaying portions. Slicing is carried out using a series of blades mounted on a circular stationary plate and a rotating drum. Some manufacturers blanch crisps prior to frying using steam-jacketed water filled tanks. Crisp frying may be batch or continuous; temperatures are in the range 160°C to 190°C and cooking times are typically between 1.5 and 3 minutes. Flavouring may be mixed with the salt or dusted/sprayed onto the crisps in rotating drums.

Writing task two Task description You will be given a discussion topic. Your task is to write a 250 word essay on that topic. You should spend around 40 minutes on the task. What is being tested is your ability to: Present a point of view with convincing evidence Challenge an alternate point of view Focus on the topic and avoid irrelevancies Communicate in a style that is easy to follow and cohesive Use English accurately and appropriately Sample task You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Your task Complete the task 2 exercise above. Sample answer It has been around forty years since television was first introduced into Australian households and people today still have mixed views on whether it has a positive or a negative influence on the society. “The essay has a clear introduction which poses the problem. Strategies for improving your IELTS score The style of essay required for Task 2 of the IELTS writing test is standard to academic courses. Connecting sentences A. B.