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Intelligence

Intelligence
Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in non-human animals and in plants. Artificial intelligence is the simulation of intelligence in machines. Within the discipline of psychology, various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted. The psychometric approach is especially familiar to the general public, as well as being the most researched and by far the most widely used in practical settings.[1] §History of the term[edit] Intelligence derives from the Latin verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive. §Definitions[edit] The definition of intelligence is controversial. From "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" (1994), an editorial statement by fifty-two researchers: A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. What is considered intelligent varies with culture. §Human intelligence[edit] Related:  Common connotations of YELLOWIntelligence FormsIntelligence

Cowardice Cowardice is a trait wherein fear and excess self-concern override doing or saying what is right, good and of help to others or oneself in a time of need—it is the opposite of courage. As a label, "cowardice" indicates a failure of character in the face of a challenge.[1] Etymology[edit] The English surname Coward (as in Noël Coward), however, has the same origin and meaning as the word "cowherd". Military law[edit] Acts of cowardice have long been punishable by military law, which defines a wide range of cowardly offenses including desertion in face of the enemy and surrendering to the enemy against orders. See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Quotations related to Cowardice at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of cowardice at Wiktionary

Fluid and crystallized intelligence Fluid intelligence or fluid reasoning is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, independent of acquired knowledge. It is the ability to analyze novel problems, identify patterns and relationships that underpin these problems and the extrapolation of these using logic. It is necessary for all logical problem solving, e.g., in scientific, mathematical, and technical problem solving. Fluid reasoning includes inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Crystallized intelligence is the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. Crystallized intelligence is one’s lifetime of intellectual achievement, as demonstrated largely through one's vocabulary and general knowledge. The terms are somewhat misleading because one is not a "crystallized" form of the other. Fluid and crystallized intelligence are thus correlated with each other, and most IQ tests attempt to measure both varieties. History[edit] Theoretical development[edit] Factor structure[edit]

1. Abstract thought Abstraction is a process by which concepts are derived from the usage and classification of literal ("real" or "concrete") concepts, first principles, or other methods. "An abstraction" is the product of this process—a concept that acts as a super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category.[1] Abstractions may be formed by reducing the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon, typically to retain only information which is relevant for a particular purpose. For example, abstracting a leather soccer ball to the more general idea of a ball retains only the information on general ball attributes and behavior, eliminating the other characteristics of that particular ball.[1] Origins[edit] Thinking in abstractions is considered[by whom?] Abstraction involves induction of ideas or the synthesis of particular facts into one general theory about something. Thought process[edit] Cat on Mat (picture 1)

Love For information about showing love on Wikipedia, see WP:LOVE and WP:♥. Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and, owing to its central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the creative arts.[8] Love may be understood as a function to keep human beings together against menaces and to facilitate the continuation of the species.[9] Definitions The word "love" can have a variety of related but distinct meanings in different contexts. Although the nature or essence of love is a subject of frequent debate, different aspects of the word can be clarified by determining what isn't love (antonyms of "love"). Abstractly discussed love usually refers to an experience one person feels for another. Impersonal love A person can be said to love an object, principle, or goal to which they are deeply committed and greatly value. Interpersonal love Interpersonal love refers to love between human beings. Pair of Lovers. 1480–1485 Persian

g factor (psychometrics) The g factor (short for "general factor") is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance at one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to his or her performance at other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor.[1] The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to the common core shared by cognitive tests.[2] The existence of the g factor was originally proposed by the English psychologist Charles Spearman in the early years of the 20th century. Mental tests may be designed to measure different aspects of cognition.

2. Understanding Understanding (also called intellection) is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that object. Understanding is a relation between the knower and an object of understanding. Understanding implies abilities and dispositions with respect to an object of knowledge sufficient to support intelligent behavior.[1] An understanding is the limit of a conceptualization. To understand something is to have conceptualized it to a given measure. Examples[edit] Understanding as a model[edit] Gregory Chaitin, a noted computer scientist, propounds a view that comprehension is a kind of data compression.[2] In his essay "The Limits of Reason", he argues that understanding something means being able to figure out a simple set of rules that explains it. Components of understanding[edit] Cognition and affect[edit] Religious perspectives[edit] See also[edit]

Traffic light Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, signal lights, stop lights and robots,[1] and also known technically as traffic control signals[2] are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings and other locations to control competing flows of traffic. Traffic lights were first installed in 1868 in London[3] and are now used all over the world. the green light allows traffic to proceed in the direction denoted, if it is safe to do sothe yellow light denoting prepare to stop short of the intersection, if it is safe to do sothe red signal prohibits any traffic from proceeding History[edit] The installation of a traffic signal in San Diego in December 1940 Marshalite traffic signal. On 10 December 1868, the first traffic lights were installed outside the British Houses of Parliament in London to control the traffic in Bridge Street, Great George Street and Parliament Street. Countdown timers on traffic lights were introduced in the 1990s.

Intelligence quotient IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality,[2][3] parental social status,[4] and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates[5][6] and the mechanisms of inheritance.[7] History[edit] Early history[edit] The English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardised test for rating a person's intelligence. French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test in 1905, which focused on verbal abilities. The score on the Binet-Simon scale would reveal the child's mental age. General factor (g)[edit] The many different kinds of IQ tests use a wide variety of methods. An illustration of Spearman's two-factor intelligence theory. The War Years in the United States[edit] L.L. John B.

3. Self-awareness Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals.[1] It is not to be confused with consciousness. While consciousness is being aware of one’s environment and body and lifestyle, self-awareness is the recognition of that consciousness.[2] Neurobiological basis[edit] There are questions regarding what part of the brain allows us to be self-aware and how we are biologically programmed to be self- aware. V.S. Animals[edit] Studies have been done mainly on primates to test if self-awareness is present. The ‘Red Spot Technique’ created and experimented by Gordon Gallup[6] studies self-awareness in animals (primates). Researchers used the Mark test or Mirror test [12] to study the magpie’s self awareness. A few slight occurrences of behavior towards the magpie's own body happened in the trial with the black mark and the mirror. Psychology[edit] Developmental stages[edit] Level 0: Confusion.

Animal Crossing Four Animal Crossing games have been released worldwide, one each for the Nintendo GameCube, Nintendo DS, Wii, and the Nintendo 3DS. The series has been both critically and commercially successful and has sold 23.711 million units worldwide.[1][2][3][4] Gameplay[edit] One notable feature of the Animal Crossing series is the high level of customization available, some of which affects the outcome of the game.[6] The player character is both named and gendered, and their appearance can be modified by buying or designing custom clothes and accessories or changing the hairstyle (introduced in Wild World). All installments of Animal Crossing allow some form of communication between players, both offline and online. Games[edit] Spin-offs[edit] Animal Crossing Plaza, released for the Wii U in 2013, a Miiverse application similar to the system's WaraWara Plaza. Reception and legacy[edit] The 2008 Wii game Super Smash Bros. Wii Music features two playable songs from Animal Crossing. See also[edit]

Systems thinking Impression of systems thinking about society[1] A system is composed of interrelated parts or components (structures) that cooperate in processes (behavior). Natural systems include biological entities, ocean currents, the climate, the solar system and ecosystems. Designed systems include airplanes, software systems, technologies and machines of all kinds, government agencies and business systems. Systems Thinking has at least some roots in the General System Theory that was advanced by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in the 1940s and furthered by Ross Ashby in the 1950s. Systems thinking has been applied to problem solving, by viewing "problems" as parts of an overall system, rather than reacting to specific parts, outcomes or events and potentially contributing to further development of unintended consequences. Systems science thinking attempts to illustrate how small catalytic events that are separated by distance and time can be the cause of significant changes in complex systems.

4. Communication In the realm of biology in general, communication often occurs through visual, auditory, or biochemical means. Human communication is unique for its extensive use of language. Non-human communication is studied in the field of biosemiotics. Nonverbal communication[edit] Verbal communication[edit] Effective verbal or spoken communication is dependent on a number of factors and cannot be fully isolated from other important interpersonal skills such as non-verbal communication, listening skills and clarification. Written communication and its historical development[edit] Over time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved through the continuing progression of technology. The progression of written communication can be divided into three "information communication revolutions":[3] Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding. Business communication[edit] Effective communication[edit] Physical barriers.

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