Common Molecules Learn About: Common Molecules Welcome to the Common Molecules collection, part of the Reciprocal Net project! The molecules in this site are considered common based on their general use or presence in the world in and around us or by the interest they spark because of their fascinating structural properties and innovative applications. By clicking on a category below, general information on the category and a list of clickable compound classes is given; the latter will lead you to a list on molecules. The Energy Story Energy is one of the most fundamental parts of our universe. We use energy to do work. Energy lights our cities. Energy powers our vehicles, trains, planes and rockets. Energy warms our homes, cooks our food, plays our music, gives us pictures on television. Energy powers machinery in factories and tractors on a farm. Energy from the sun gives us light during the day. Everything we do is connected to energy in one form or another. Energy is defined as: "the ability to do work." When we eat, our bodies transform the energy stored in the food into energy to do work. Cars, planes, light bulbs, boats and machinery also transform energy into work. Work means moving something, lifting something, warming something, lighting something. There are many sources of energy. The forms of energy we will look at include: Electricity We will also look at turbines and generators, at what electricity is, how energy is sent to users, and how we can decrease or conserve the energy we use.
science 25 Acts of Body Language to Avoid Our body language exhibits far more information about how we feel than it is possible to articulate verbally. All of the physical gestures we make are subconsciously interpreted by others. This can work for or against us depending on the kind of body language we use. Some gestures project a very positive message, while others do nothing but set a negative tone. Most people are totally oblivious to their own body language, so the discipline of controlling these gestures can be quite challenging. Most of them are reflexive in nature, automatically matching up to what our minds are thinking at any given moment. Nevertheless, with the right information and a little practice, we can train ourselves to overcome most of our negative body language habits. Practice avoiding these 25 negative gestures: “ I speak two languages, Body and English. ” — Mae West Holding Objects in Front of Your Body – a coffee cup, notebook, hand bag, etc. Want to know powerful, dominant, confident body language postures?
training room Misuse of statistics A misuse of statistics occurs when a statistical argument asserts a falsehood. In some cases, the misuse may be accidental. In others, it is purposeful and for the gain of the perpetrator. When the statistical reason involved is false or misapplied, this constitutes a statistical fallacy. The false statistics trap can be quite damaging to the quest for knowledge. Misuses can be easy to fall into. Types of misuse Discarding unfavorable data All a company has to do to promote a neutral (useless) product is to find or conduct, for example, 40 studies with a confidence level of 95%. Another common technique is to perform a study that tests a large number of dependent (response) variables at the same time. Loaded questions The answers to surveys can often be manipulated by wording the question in such a way as to induce a prevalence towards a certain answer from the respondent. Do you support the attempt by the USA to bring freedom and democracy to other places in the world? .
practice Common statistical fallacies I've been reading papers on how people learn statistics (and thoughts on teaching the subject) and came across the frequently-cited work of mathematical psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. In 1972, they studied statistical misconceptions. It doesn't seem much has changed. Joan Garfield (1995) summarizes in How to Learn Statistics [pdf]. Representativeness: People estimate the likelihood of a sample based on how closely it resembles the population. You can't always judge how likely or improbable a sample is based on how it compares to a known population. Similarly, a sequence of ten heads in a row isn't the same as getting a million heads in a row. Gambler's fallacy: Use of the representative heuristic leads to the view that chance is a self-correcting process. The history boards at roulette tables mean nothing. Base-rate fallacy: People ignore the relative sizes of population subgroups when judging the likelihood of contingent events involving the subgroups. Availability:
student Pseudoreplication Pseudoreplication, as originally defined , is a special case of inadequate specification of random factors where both random and fixed factors are present. The problem described by this term arises when treatments are assigned to units that are subsampled and the treatment F-ratio in an analysis of variance (ANOVA) table is formed with respect to the residual mean square rather than with respect to the among unit mean square. The F-ratio relative to the within unit mean square is vulnerable to the confounding of treatment and unit effects, especially when unit number is small (e.g. four tank units, two tanks treated, two not treated, several subsamples per tank). The problem is eliminated by forming the F-ratio relative to the among unit mean square in the ANOVA table (tank MS in the example above). Replication Hypothesis testing Statistical tests (e.g. t-test and the related ANOVA family of tests) rely on appropriate replication to estimate statistical confidence.