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Alternative dispute resolution Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) (also known as external dispute resolution in some countries, such as Australia[1]) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without) the help of a third party. Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. Salient features[edit] ADR traditions vary somewhat by country and culture. Alternative Dispute Resolution is of two historic types. ADR includes informal tribunals, informal mediative processes, formal tribunals and formal mediative processes. For example, freeform negotiation is merely the use of the tools without any process. Calling upon an organizational ombudsman's office is never, by itself, a formal procedure. India[edit]

United Nations Administrative Tribunal As a result of the decision of the General Assembly to establish a new system of administration of justice, including a two-tier formal system comprising a first instance, the UN Dispute Tribunal, and an appellate instance, the UN Appeals Tribunal, the UN Administrative Tribunal was abolished as of 31 December 2009. (See resolutions 61/261 of 4 April 2007, 62/228 of 22 December 2007 and 63/253 of 24 December 2008.) Please visit the temporary website for the new UN internal justice system for more information: . The new website for the UN internal justice system is under development and will replace the temporary website upon completion. Restorative justice Restorative justice (also sometimes called reparative justice)[1] is an approach to justice that focuses on the needs of the victims and the offenders, as well as the involved community, instead of satisfying abstract legal principles or punishing the offender. Victims take an active role in the process, while offenders are encouraged to take responsibility for their actions, "to repair the harm they've done—by apologizing, returning stolen money, or community service".[2] Restorative justice involves both victim and offender and focuses on their personal needs. In addition, it provides help for the offender in order to avoid future offences. Definition[edit] ...a process where all stakeholders affected by an injustice have an opportunity to discuss how they have been affected by the injustice and to decide what should be done to repair the harm. The process of restorative justice necessitates a shift in responsibility for addressing crime. Who has been hurt? What laws have been broken?

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