Zipf's law Zipf's law /ˈzɪf/, an empirical law formulated using mathematical statistics, refers to the fact that many types of data studied in the physical and social sciences can be approximated with a Zipfian distribution, one of a family of related discrete power law probability distributions. The law is named after the American linguist George Kingsley Zipf (1902–1950), who first proposed it (Zipf 1935, 1949), though the French stenographer Jean-Baptiste Estoup (1868–1950) appears to have noticed the regularity before Zipf. It was also noted in 1913 by German physicist Felix Auerbach (1856–1933). Motivation Zipf's law states that given some corpus of natural language utterances, the frequency of any word is inversely proportional to its rank in the frequency table. Thus the most frequent word will occur approximately twice as often as the second most frequent word, three times as often as the third most frequent word, etc.
Carrot2 Clustering Engine Carrot2 Search Results Clustering Engine Carrot2 organizes your search results into topics. With an instant overview of what's available, you will quickly find what you're looking for. Choose where to search: Type your query: Resources for Science Learning Maillardet's Automaton In 1928, The Franklin Institute in Philadelphia acquired the pieces of an interesting, but totally ruined, brass machine. The very same is an automaton, now in working order, and on display in The Franklin Institute's "Amazing Machine" exhibit!
9 Things Every Student Should Be Able to Do with Google Drive March 8, 2014 Today I want to introduce you to some basic features integrated in Google Docs and which your students can use to help them with their research projects and also boost their collaborative workforce. 1- Research feature While composing in Google Docs students can very easily conduct a research on any highlighted word or phrase without having to change tabs or open new windows. To do this, they simply highlight the phrase they want to research and right click on it then select "research". A window pane will be displayed on the right hand sidebar with the search results of their query. 2- Search for scholarly articles and images Besides doing a web search for their queries, students can also search for images, scholarly articles, and quotes related to the phrase or word they highlighted.
The Stanford NLP (Natural Language Processing) Group About | Citing | Questions | Download | Included Tools | Extensions | Release history | Sample output | Online | FAQ A natural language parser is a program that works out the grammatical structure of sentences, for instance, which groups of words go together (as "phrases") and which words are the subject or object of a verb. Probabilistic parsers use knowledge of language gained from hand-parsed sentences to try to produce the most likely analysis of new sentences. These statistical parsers still make some mistakes, but commonly work rather well.
Public Domain Collections: Free to Share & Reuse That means everyone has the freedom to enjoy and reuse these materials in almost limitless ways. The Library now makes it possible to download such items in the highest resolution available directly from the Digital Collections website. Search Digital Collections No permission required. No restrictions on use. Below you'll find tools, projects, and explorations designed to inspire your own creations—go forth and reuse! An Educator’s Guide to the “Four Cs” Preparing 21st Century Students for a Global Society Found In: teaching strategies All educators want to help their students succeed in life. What was considered a good education 50 years ago, however, is no longer enough for success in college, career, and citizenship in the 21st century.
Swan - Scientific Writing Assistant What is the Swan - Scientific Writing Assistant and how to start using it? The Swan - Scientific Writing Assistant aims at helping writers with the content, not the grammar or spelling. It tries to guide you towards known good scientific writing practices and to help your readers in finding your contribution. The tool was designed to help you with your writing, not to merely point out errors. Using the tool should be simple; just input your text sections to the tool, optionally make some manual elaboration and click Evaluate button.
Parsing Within computational linguistics the term is used to refer to the formal analysis by a computer of a sentence or other string of words into its constituents, resulting in a parse tree showing their syntactic relation to each other, which may also contain semantic and other information. The term is also used in psycholinguistics when describing language comprehension. In this context, parsing refers to the way that human beings analyze a sentence or phrase (in spoken language or text) "in terms of grammatical constituents, identifying the parts of speech, syntactic relations, etc."  This term is especially common when discussing what linguistic cues help speakers to interpret garden-path sentences. Human languages Traditional methods Parsing was formerly central to the teaching of grammar throughout the English-speaking world, and widely regarded as basic to the use and understanding of written language.
Format Identification for Digital Objects (FIDO) - Open Preservation Foundation Format Identification for Digital Objects (fido). FIDO is a command-line tool to identify the file formats of digital objects. It is designed for simple integration into automated work-flows.