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Educational psychology

Educational psychology
Educational psychology is the study of human learning. The study of learning processes, both cognitive and affective, allows researchers to understand individual differences in behavior, personality, intellect, and self- concept. The field of educational psychology heavily relies on testing, measurement, assessment, evaluation, and training to enhance educational activities and learning processes.[1] This can involve studying instructional processes within the classroom setting. Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. It is also informed by neuroscience. The field of educational psychology involves the study of memory, conceptual processes, and individual differences (via cognitive psychology) in conceptualizing new strategies for learning processes in humans. History[edit] Early years[edit] Related:  fields related to Cognitive PsychologyApplied psychology

Learning by teaching In professional education, learning by teaching (German: Lernen durch Lehren, short LdL) designates currently the method by Jean-Pol Martin that allows pupils and students to prepare and to teach lessons, or parts of lessons. Learning by teaching should not be confused with presentations or lectures by students, as students not only convey a certain content, but also choose their own methods and didactic approaches in teaching classmates that subject. Neither should it be confused with tutoring, because the teacher has intensive control of, and gives support for, the learning process in learning by teaching as against other methods. History[edit] Seneca the Younger told in his letters to Lucilius that we are learning if we teach (epistulae morales I, 7, 8): docendo discimus (lat.: "by teaching we are learning"). At all times in the history of schooling there have been phases where students were mobilized to teach their peers. Students as teachers in order to spare teachers[edit]

Developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the scientific study of changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire lifespan. This field examines change across a broad range of topics including motor skills and other psycho-physiological processes; cognitive development involving areas such as problem solving, moral understanding, and conceptual understanding; language acquisition; social, personality, and emotional development; and self-concept and identity formation. Developmental psychology examines issues such as the extent of development through gradual accumulation of knowledge versus stage-like development—and the extent to which children are born with innate mental structures, versus learning through experience. Theories[edit] Attachment theory[edit] A child can be hindered in its natural tendency to form attachments. Constructivism[edit]

Counseling psychology Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health. Some unifying themes among counseling psychologists include a focus on assets and strengths, person–environment interactions, educational and career development, brief interactions, and a focus on intact personalities.[1] In the United States, the premier scholarly journals of the profession are the Journal of Counseling Psychology[2] and The Counseling Psychologist.[3] In the U.S., counseling psychology programs are accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA), while counseling programs are accredited through the Counsel for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). History[edit] In the US, counseling psychology, like many modern psychology specialities, started as a result of World War II.

Descriptive knowledge Descriptive knowledge, also declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions. This distinguishes descriptive knowledge from what is commonly known as "know-how", or procedural knowledge (the knowledge of how, and especially how best, to perform some task), and "knowing of", or knowledge by acquaintance (the knowledge of something's existence). The difference between knowledge and beliefs is as follows: A belief is an internal thought or memory which exists in one's mind. Most people accept that for a belief to be knowledge it must be, at least, true and justified. The Gettier problem in philosophy is the question of whether there are any other requirements before a belief can be accepted as knowledge. Acquiring knowledge[edit] People have used many methods to try to gain knowledge. Types of knowledge[edit] Knowledge in various disciplines[edit] Knowledge in history[edit]

Welcome - Work Learning Research Abnormal psychology Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder. Although many behaviours could be considered as abnormal, this branch of psychology generally deals with behavior in a clinical context.[1] There is a long history of attempts to understand and control behavior deemed to be aberrant or deviant (statistically, morally or in some other sense), and there is often cultural variation in the approach taken. The field of abnormal psychology identifies multiple causes for different conditions, employing diverse theories from the general field of psychology and elsewhere, and much still hinges on what exactly is meant by "abnormal". The science of abnormal psychology studies two types of behaviors: adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. History[edit] Supernatural traditions[edit] Asylums[edit] Continuing institutionalization[edit] Deinstitutionalisation[edit]

Consumer behaviour Consumer Behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society.[1] It blends elements from psychology, sociology, social anthropology, marketing and economics. It attempts to understand the decision-making processes of buyers, both individually and in groups such as how emotions affect buying behaviour. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics and behavioural variables in an attempt to understand people's wants. Customer behaviour study is based on consumer buying behaviour, with the customer playing the three distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Black box model[edit] The black box model considers the buyer's response as a result of a conscious, rational decision process, in which it is assumed that the buyer has recognized the problem. See also[edit]

Procedural knowledge Procedural knowledge, also known as imperative knowledge, is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. See below for the specific meaning of this term in cognitive psychology and intellectual property law. Procedural knowledge, or implicit knowledge is different from other kinds of knowledge, such as declarative knowledge, in that it can be directly applied to a task. For instance, the procedural knowledge one uses to solve problems differs from the declarative knowledge one possesses about problem solving because this knowledge is formed by doing.[1] In some legal systems, such procedural knowledge has been considered the intellectual property of a company, and can be transferred when that company is purchased. One limitation of procedural knowledge is its job-dependence; thus it tends to be less general than declarative knowledge. Contexts[edit] Artificial intelligence[edit] Cognitive psychology[edit] Educational implications[edit] Intellectual property law[edit] Notes[edit]

Teach a man to fish - humorous alternatives Share: I've collected some humorous alternatives to the original teach a man to fish proverb: Give a man a fish and you will feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you will feed him for a lifetime. Add new ones as comments if you know any. Teach a man to fish and he will kick your ass and steal your fishing pole.

Personality psychology A picture of the depictions of personality dimensions. Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals. Its areas of focus include: construction of a coherent picture of the individual and their major psychological processesinvestigation of individual psychological differencesinvestigation of human nature and psychological similarities between individuals "Personality" is a dynamic[clarification needed] and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely[clarification needed] influences their environment, cognitions, emotions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations. Personality also refers to the pattern of thoughts, feelings, social adjustments, and behaviors consistently exhibited over time that strongly influences one's expectations, self-perceptions, values, and attitudes. The study of personality has a broad and varied history in psychology with an abundance of theoretical traditions.

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