The older sections (mainly in the Book of the Watchers) are estimated to date from about 300 B.C., and the latest part (Book of Parables) probably was composed at the end of the first century B.C. It is wholly extant only in the Ge'ez language, with Aramaic fragments from the Dead Sea Scrolls and a few Greek and Latin fragments. For this and other reasons, the traditional Ethiopian belief is that the original language of the work was Ge'ez, whereas non-Ethiopian scholars tend to assert that it was first written in either Aramaic or Hebrew; E. Isaac suggests that the Book of Enoch, like the Book of Daniel, was composed partially in Aramaic and partially in Hebrew.:6 No Hebrew version is known to have survived. The authors of the New Testament were familiar with the content of the story and influenced by it: a short section of 1 Enoch (1 En 1:9) is quoted in the New Testament (Letter of Jude 1:14–15), and is attributed there to "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" (1 En 60:8). Peter H.
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Are You a Cat Person or a Dog Person?Forget baby fever. I have a serious case of animal fever. The same thing happened to me about a year ago when I got my bunny Bella. Have you ever wondered if you’re more of a dog person or a cat person? After discovering this infographic, I feel no closer to making a decision on what animal I should get next. [via] Share This Infographic Get Free Infographics Delivered to your InboxJubileesThe Book of Jubilees, sometimes called Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work of 50 chapters, considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as well as Bete Israel (Ethiopian Jews), where it is known as the Book of Division (Ge'ez: Mets'hafe Kufale). Jubilees is considered one of the pseudepigrapha by Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Churches. It was well known to Early Christians, as evidenced by the writings of Epiphanius, Justin Martyr, Origen, Diodorus of Tarsus, Isidore of Alexandria, Isidore of Seville, Eutychius of Alexandria, John Malalas, George Syncellus, and George Kedrenos. The text was also utilized by the community that originally collected the Dead Sea Scrolls. It was so thoroughly suppressed in the 4th century that no complete Hebrew, Greek or Latin version has survived. There is conjecture among western biblical scholars that Jubilees may be a rework of material found in the canonical books of Genesis and Exodus.
MeqabyanI, II, and III Meqabyan (Ge'ez: መቃብያን, sometimes spelled Makabian) are three books in the Ethiopian Orthodox Old Testament Biblical canon. Although these books are completely different in content from the books of Maccabees in Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles, they are sometimes referred to as Ethiopic Maccabees or Ethiopian Maccabees. The "Maccabees" described in these books are not those of the Hasmonean dynasty, and the "Five Holy Maccabean Martyrs" here do not correspond to the martyred "woman with seven sons", who were also referred to as "Maccabees" and are revered throughout Orthodoxy as the "Holy Maccabean Martyrs". These three books long existed only in Ethiopic, but have recently been translated into standard English by Feqade Selassie. The Book of First Meqabyan has 36 chapters. It begins: "In the days of the Moabites and Medes". References Feqade Selassie, Ethiopian Books of Meqabyan 1–3, in Standard English 2008, Lulu.com External links
Book of TobitThe Book of Tobit (Book of Tobias in the Vulgate; from the Greek: τωβιθ, and Hebrew: טובי Tobi "my good", also called the Book of Tobias from the Hebrew טוביה Tovya "God is good") is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the Council of Trent (1546). Canonical Status The Book of Tobit is listed in the canon of the Councils of Hippo (393 AD), Carthage (397 AD), and Florence (1442), and is part of the canon of both the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Churches, although Roman Catholics often refer to it as deuterocanonical. It is listed as a book of the "Apocrypha" in Article VI of the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England. Tobit is regarded by Protestants as apocryphal because it was not included within the Tanakh nor considered canonical by Judaism. Narrative After the feast, Tobias and Sarah returned to Nineveh. Notes
9 Overlooked Technologies That Could Transform The WorldWhat I've noticed is that most people don't really pay attention to "science" news, unless it's something that they can see immediately. I think this is at least partially because of the amount of news that comes out daily - whatever we may think about the quality of news, there is just a flood of it, which makes picking out "interesting" items difficult. When I talk about (just for example) the idea of gene therapy, most people think that it is still complete science fiction, as opposed to a very near-term product that will be available. Of course, CSP has been around for years, so it isn't really "new" to the average person. What they don't realize is the way that efficiencies have improved... And electronic currency is still in the "only oddballs use it" phase - people are aware of it, but mostly because of the issues bitcoin has had in the recent past. Finally, of course, for a majority of people, the only science fiction they think of it Star Wars/Trek, or (advanced!)
Book of GenesisThe Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek γένεσις, meaning "origin"; Hebrew: בְּרֵאשִׁית, Bərēšīṯ, "In [the] beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Christian Old Testament. Structure Summary The Angel Hinders the Offering of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1635) God creates the world in six days. Later after the great flood, God divided the languages of the humans after they were deciding to live together and build a great towered city from atop of the heavens which displeased God. God instructs Abram (the future Abraham) to travel from his home in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) to the land of Canaan. Sarah is barren, and tells Abraham to take her Egyptian handmaiden, Hagar, as a second wife. God tests Abraham by demanding that he sacrifice Isaac. Composition Abram's Journey from Ur to Canaan (József Molnár, 1850) Origins This leaves the question of when these works were created. Genre Themes
Dead Sea ScrollsThe Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of 981 texts discovered between 1946 and 1956 at Khirbet Qumran in the West Bank. They were found inside caves about a mile inland from the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, from which they derive their name. Nine of the scrolls were rediscovered at the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) in 2014, after they had been stored unopened for six decades following their excavation in 1952. The texts are of great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the earliest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. Due to the poor condition of some of the Scrolls, not all of them have been identified. Discovery Qumran cave 4, where ninety percent of the scrolls were found Initial discovery (1946–1947) Scrolls and fragments
Second Book of EnochMost scholars consider 2 Enoch to be composed by an unknown Jewish sectarian group, while some authors think it is a 1st-century Christian text. A very few scholars consider it a later Christian work. This article discusses 2 Enoch. It is distinct from the Book of Enoch, known as 1 Enoch. There is also an unrelated 3 Enoch. The numbering of these texts has been applied by scholars to distinguish the texts from one another. Manuscript Tradition 2 Enoch has survived in more than twenty Slavonic manuscripts and fragments dated from 14th to 18th centuries CE. 2 Enoch exists in longer and shorter recensions. Two different ways to numbering verses and chapters are used for 2 Enoch: the more widely accepted is Popov's one in 73 chapters, while De Santos Otero proposed a division in 24 chapters. The best family of manuscripts are copies of the compilation of rearranged materials from chs. 40–65 from a 14th-century judicial codex "The Just Balance" ("Merilo Pravednoe").