Color Numbers - Hexadecimal Colour Value Calculator for HTML Use this simple java applet to compare html colours quickly and easily. Excellent for designing web pages, as you can set the foreground and background colors to your tastes, and then read their hexadecimal "color code" values, which are used in HTML. You can contrast different sizes of text and/or a big colored area against the background colour. Note that the colours shown are java's interpretation of the colour value. I have chosen a non-descript gray colour for the background of this page, so that your eye may experience the colours you choose with a 'clean palette', as it were. As a note of interest, on page 13 of IBM's G40 Monitor Handbook, 'IBM recommends that the use of primary colour blue on a dark background be avoided. If you bookmark this page, you can come back and use this powerful tool any time you feel like. If you wonder why I consistently spell color/colour as color or colour, it is because I don't trust the search engines to find you one if you search for the other.
Colour look-up table A colour look-up table (CLUT) is a mechanism used to transform a range of input colours into another range of colours. It can be a hardware device built into an imaging system or a software function built into an image processing application. The hardware colour look-up table will convert the logical colour (pseudo-colour) numbers stored in each pixel of video memory into physical colours, normally represented as RGB triplets, that can be displayed on a computer monitor. A CLUT is characterized by: The number of entries in the palette: determines the maximum number of colours which can appear on screen simultaneously (a subset of the wider full palette, which is to be understood as the total number of colours that a given system is able to generate or manage, e.g. the full RGB colour palette).The width of each entry in the palette: determines the number of colours which the wider full palette can represent. A common example would be a palette of 256 colours (e.g. See also
List of colors The following is a list of colors. A number of the color swatches below are taken from domain-specific naming schemes such as X11 or HTML4. RGB values are given for each swatch because such standards are defined in terms of the sRGB color space. It is not possible to accurately convert many of these swatches to CMYK values because of the differing gamuts of the two spaces, but the color management systems built into operating systems and image editing software attempt such conversions as accurately as possible. The HSV (hue, saturation, value) color space values, also known as HSB (hue, saturation, brightness), and the hex triplets (for HTML web colors) are also given in the following table. Colors in alphabetical order A-F For the continuation of the list of colors, please go to List of colors: G-M#Colors. Colors by shade White Gray/Grey Achromatic grays are colors between black and white with no hue. Pink Red Main articles: Red and Variations of red Sources
Color tool A screenshot of the GTK+ color picker. A color tool, color picker, or color chooser is a utility, usually found within graphics software or online, used to choose colors or create color schemes. Many such tools exist on the world wide web which include features such as a color harmonization interface, a color picker, RGB and HSL conversion and manipulation, a collection of saved schemes, and other similar characteristics. Purpose Interface Color tools can vary in their interface. Each color is represented as a unique number. See also External links RGBHEXCODE Color Picker
List of color palettes Only a sample and the palette's name are given here. More specific articles are linked from the name of each palette, for the test charts, samples, simulated images, and further technical details (including references). In the past, manufacturers have developed many different display systems in a competitive, non-collaborative basis (with a few exceptions, as the VESA consortium), creating many proprietary, non-standard different instances of display hardware. In order to organize the material, color palettes have been grouped following arbitrary but rational criteria. Here is the common color test chart and sample image used to render every palette in this series of articles: See further details in the summary paragraph of the corresponding article. List of monochrome and RGB palettes For specific hardware and different methods to produce colors than RGB, see the List of computer hardware palettes and the List of videogame consoles sections. Monochrome palettes See also
Graphic design Graphic design is the methodology of visual communication, and problem-solving through the use of type, space and image. The field is considered a subset of visual communication and communication design, but sometimes the term "graphic design" is used interchangeably with these due to overlapping skills involved. Graphic designers use various methods to create and combine words, symbols, and images to create a visual representation of ideas and messages. A graphic designer may use a combination of typography, visual arts and page layout techniques to produce a final result. Graphic design often refers to both the process (designing) by which the communication is created and the products (designs) which are generated. History Page from the Book of Kells: Folio 114v, Decorated text. The advent of printing During the Tang Dynasty (618–907) between the 7th and 9th century AD, wood blocks were cut to print on textiles and later to reproduce Buddhist texts. Applications
Colorimetry and printing | Metropack Colour control is today an important parameter in quality control processes (goods-in checking, lab tests, production tests, finished product tests…). It may be used by different types of operators where their test parameters may differ. The results of the analyses may be used internally or sent to a supplier or client. The figures obtained may be used to accept or to modify the colours or for an absolute quantification for an analytic traceability of the information. Beyond colour specifications, we are able to perform various tests such as abrasion, or study the ageing of the products on the shelves in order to tests the quality of the materials and the printing.
Color depth Color depth or colour depth (see spelling differences), also known as bit depth, is either the number of bits used to indicate the color of a single pixel, in a bitmapped image or video frame buffer, or the number of bits used for each color component of a single pixel. For consumer video standards, such as High Efficiency Video Coding (H.265), the bit depth specifies the number of bits used for each color component. When referring to a pixel the concept can be defined as bits per pixel (bpp), which specifies the number of bits used. When referring to a color component the concept can be defined as bits per channel (bpc), bits per color (bpc), or bits per sample (bps). Color depth is only one aspect of color representation, expressing how finely levels of color can be expressed (a.k.a. color precision); the other aspect is how broad a range of colors can be expressed (the gamut). Indexed color 2 bits (4 colors) 4 bits (16 colors) 8 bits (256 colors)
Color space A comparison of the chromaticities enclosed by some color spaces. A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers, typically as three or four values or color components (e.g. RGB and CMYK are color models). However, a color model with no associated mapping function to an absolute color space is a more or less arbitrary color system with no connection to any globally understood system of color interpretation. Adding a certain mapping function between the color model and a certain reference color space results in a definite "footprint" within the reference color space. In the most generic sense of the definition above, color spaces can be defined without the use of a color model. Understanding the concept A comparison of RGB and CMYK color models. A wide range of colors can be created by the subtractive primary colors of pigment (cyan (C), magenta (M), yellow (Y), and black (K)). Notes Conversion Density
Posterization Example of a photograph in JPEG format (24-bit color or 16.7 million colors) before posterization, contrasting the result of saving to GIF format (256 colors). Posterization occurs across the image, but is most obvious in areas of subtle variation in tone. Posterization of an image entails conversion of a continuous gradation of tone to several regions of fewer tones, with abrupt changes from one tone to another. This was originally done with photographic processes to create posters. It can now be done photographically or with digital image processing, and may be deliberate or may be an unintended artifact of color quantization. Cause The effect may be created deliberately, or happen accidentally. Unwanted posterization, also known as banding, may occur when the color depth, sometimes called bit depth, is insufficient to accurately sample a continuous gradation of color tone. Photographic process Applications Posterizing time  See also References
Downsampling Downsampling by an integer factor Downsampling by an integer factor, M, can be explained as a 2-step process, with an equivalent implementation that is more efficient: Reduce high-frequency components with a digital lowpass filter.Decimate the output sequence, keeping only every Mth output sample. Decimation causes high-frequency signal components to be misinterpreted by subsequent users of the data, which is a form of distortion called aliasing. The first step, if necessary, is to suppress such components to an acceptable level of distortion. When the anti-aliasing filter is an IIR design, it relies on feedback from output to input, prior to the decimation step. where the h[•] sequence is the impulse response, and K is its length. x[•] represents the input sequence being downsampled. Impulse response coefficients taken at intervals of M form a subsequence, and there are M such subsequences (phases) multiplexed together. Anti-aliasing filter times the Nyquist frequency.