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Educational technology

Educational technology
Educational technology is the effective use of technological tools in learning. As a concept, it concerns an array of tools, such as media, machines and networking hardware, as well as considering theoretical perspectives for their effective application.[1][2] Educational technology includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, animation, and streaming video, and includes technology applications and processes such as audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD-ROM, and computer-based learning, as well as local intranet/extranet and web-based learning. Information and communication systems, whether free-standing or based on either local networks or the Internet in networked learning, underlie many e-learning processes.[6] Educational technology and e-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. Definition[edit] Scope[edit] Related terms[edit] Early 19th century abacus used in a Danish elementary school. History[edit] 19th century classroom, Auckland Cassandra B. Theory[edit] Related:  Other educational forms

Instructional technology In education, instructional technology is "the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning," according to the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Definitions and Terminology Committee.[1] Instructional technology is often referred to as a part of educational technology but the use of these terms has changed over the years.[2] Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."[3] While instructional technology covers the processes and systems of learning and instruction, educational technology includes other systems used in the process of developing human capability. History[edit] The first use of instructional technology cannot be attributed to a specific person or time. Current status[edit] Areas[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Open education Open education is a collective term[1] to describe institutional practices and programmatic initiatives that broaden access to the learning and training traditionally offered through formal education systems. The qualifier "open" of open education refers to the elimination of barriers that can preclude both opportunities and recognition for participation in institution-based learning. One aspect of openness in or "opening up" education is the development and adoption of open educational resources. Institutional practices that seek to eliminate barriers to entry, for example, would not have academic admission requirements. Open education and flexible learning History[edit] Even before the computer was developed, researchers at public universities were working at educating citizens through informal education programs. The ability to share resources on the web at little cost compared to the distribution of hard copy means that it can be used to facilitate Open Education. Drawbacks[edit]

E-learning Educational technology is "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources".[1] Educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning.Educational technology as technological tools and media that assist in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange.Educational technology for learning management systems (LMS), such as tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS).Educational technology as back-office management, such as training management systems for logistics and budget management, and Learning Record Store (LRS) for learning data storage and analysis.Educational technology itself as an educational subject; such courses may be called "Computer Studies" or "Information and communications technology (ICT)". Definition[edit] Related terms[edit] History[edit] Theory[edit]

Autodidacticism Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education (also self-learning and self-teaching) is education without the guidance of masters (such as teachers and professors) or institutions (such as schools). Generally, an autodidact is an individual who chooses the subject they will study, their studying material, and the studying rhythm and time. An autodidact may or may not have formal education, and their study may be either a complement or an alternative to it. Etymology[edit] The term has its roots in the Ancient Greek words αὐτός (autós, lit. Terminology[edit] Various terms are used to describe self-education. Modern education[edit] Autodidacticism is sometimes a complement of modern education.[2] As a complement to education, students would be encouraged to do more independent work.[3] The Industrial Revolution created a new situation for self-directed learners. Before the twentieth century, only a small minority of people received an advanced academic education. Dr. See also[edit]

Microlearning Microlearning deals with relatively small learning units and short-term learning activities. Generally, the term "microlearning" refers to micro-perspectives in the context of learning, education and training. More frequently, the term is used in the domain of e-learning and related fields in the sense of a new paradigmatic perspective on learning processes in mediated environments. Introduction[edit] In a wide sense, microlearning can be understood as a metaphor which refers to micro aspects of a variety of learning models, concepts and processes. Depending on frames and domains of reference, micro, meso and macro aspects vary. As an instructional technology, microlearning focuses on the design of microlearning activities through micro steps in digital media environments, which already is a daily reality for today's knowledge workers. Characterization of microlearning[edit] Microlearning can be characterized as follows: Dimensions of microlearning[edit] (Hug 2005, used with permission)

Informal learning Lao villagers assemble jigsaw maps of Southeast Asia. These maps were made by Big Brother Mouse, a literacy project in Laos. It was the first time any of them had seen a jigsaw puzzle of any sort. Informal learning is, by default, any learning that is not formal learning or non-formal learning. The term is often conflated, however, with non-formal learning, and self-directed learning. Characterizations[edit] Open House Day at ESO’s Headquarters.[2] Informal learning can be characterized as follows: History[edit] In international discussions, the concept of informal learning, already used by John Dewey at an early stage and later on by Malcolm Knowles, experienced a renaissance, especially in the context of development policy. Other perspectives on informal learning[edit] Merriam and others (2007) state: "Informal learning, Schugurensky (2000) suggests, has its own internal forms that are important to distinguish in studying the phenomenon. Nonverbal Communication as a Learning Tool[edit]

Serious game A serious game or applied game is a game designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment. The "serious" adjective is generally prepended to refer to products used by industries like defense, education, scientific exploration, health care, emergency management, city planning, engineering, and politics.[citation needed] Definition and scope[edit] Serious games are simulations of real-world events or processes designed for the purpose of solving a problem. Overview[edit] The term "serious game" has been used long before the introduction of computer and electronic devices into entertainment. Reduced to its formal essence, a game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context. Mike Zyda provided an update and a logical approach to the term in his 2005 article in IEEE Computer entitled, "From Visual Simulation to Virtual Reality to Games". Other authors, though, (as Jeffery R. History[edit] Development[edit]

Indigenous education Indigenous education specifically focuses on teaching indigenous knowledge, models, methods, and content within formal or non-formal educational systems. The growing recognition and use of indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of indigenous knowledge through the processes of colonialism, globalization, and modernity.[1] Indigenous communities are able to “reclaim and revalue their languages and [traditions], and in so doing, improve the educational success of indigenous students,” thus ensuring their survival as a culture.[1] Principal Sha (also 6th grade teacher) of the Yangjuan Primary School in Yanyuan County, Sichuan looks over his student's essays about the schoolyard. Increasingly, there has been a global shift toward recognizing and understanding indigenous models of education as a viable and legitimate form of education. Cultural context of indigenous learning in the Americas[edit] Classroom Structure[edit] Benefits of Indigenous Education[edit]

Learning object A learning object is "a collection of content items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective".[1] The term is credited to Wayne Hodgins when he created a working group in 1994 bearing the name[2] though the concept was first described by Gerard in 1967.[3] Learning objects go by many names, including content objects, chunks, educational objects, information objects, intelligent objects, knowledge bits, knowledge objects, learning components, media objects, reusable curriculum components, nuggets, reusable information objects, reusable learning objects, testable reusable units of cognition, training components, and units of learning. Learning objects offer a new conceptualization of the learning process: rather than the traditional "several hour chunk", they provide smaller, self-contained, re-usable units of learning.[4] Definitions[edit] The following definitions focus on the relation between learning object and digital media. [edit]

Alternative education Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, includes a number of approaches to teaching and learning separate from that offered by mainstream or traditional education. Educational alternatives are rooted in a number of philosophies differing from those of mainstream education. Although some alternatives have political, scholarly or philosophical orientations, others were begun by informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with some aspects of mainstream education. Educational alternatives (which include charter, alternative and independent schools and home-based learning) vary, but usually emphasize small class sizes, close relationships between students and teachers and a sense of community. Terminology[edit] Alternative education refers to education which does not conform to a conventional standard. Origins[edit] Alternative education presupposes a tradition to which the "alternative" is opposed. In the United States[edit]

Instructional design History[edit] Origins[edit] During World War II, a considerable amount of training materials for the military were developed based on the principles of instruction, learning, and human behavior. Tests for assessing a learner’s abilities were used to screen candidates for the training programs. 1946 – Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience[edit] In 1946, Dale outlined a hierarchy of instructional methods and their effectiveness.[6] Mid-1950s through mid-1960s - The Programmed Instruction Movement[edit] Early 1960s - The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement[edit] Robert Glaser first used the term “criterion-referenced measures” in 1962. 1965 - Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis[edit] 1967 - Formative Evaluation[edit] In 1967, after analyzing the failure of training material, Michael Scriven suggested the need for formative assessment – e.g., to try out instructional materials with learners (and revise accordingly) before declaring them finalized.[5] See also[edit]

Learning and the Environment In Simulations and the Future of Learning: An Innovative (and Perhaps Revolutionary) Approach to e-Learning, Clark Aldrich writes that It is not the normal how-to textbook, but rather a true story about building a leadership simulation. It is quite interesting and highly recommended. In the book, Aldrich discusses three types of contents: linear, cyclical, and open-ended. He recently refined and elaborated on this concept with a paper titled Six Criteria of an Educational Simulation. In the paper, Aldrich writes that there are six criteria, divided into two groups, that compose a learning environment: Content Types: Linear Cyclical System Delivery Elements: Pedagogy Game Simulation Content Types Content types describe directional flow of the content. For example, when learning to drive: Linear: Starting the car by fastening seat belt, inserting and turning the key, putting it in drive, etc.Cyclical: Starting and stopping. Delivery Elements Going back to the driving example:

Neurodevelopmental framework for learning Neurodevelopmental framework for learning, like all frameworks, is an organizing structure through which learners and learning can be understood. Intelligence theories and neuropsychology inform many of them. The framework described below is a neurodevelopmental framework for learning. This framework consists of 8 constructs, sometimes referred to as systems (Levine, 1998):[1] Constructs[edit] In addition to the 8 constructs, this framework includes several "cross-construct" phenomena: rate alignment (working at optimal speed), strategy use (working and thinking tactically), chunk size capacity- the amount of material that can be processed, stored or generated, and metacognition (degree of knowledge about learning and insight into one's own neurodevelopmental strengths and weaknesses). Implications for Educational Practice[edit] Students come to school with unique neurodevelopmental profiles; the strengths and weaknesses of each learner's brain are different. In Schools[edit] [edit]