Constructivism Jean Piaget: founder of Constructivism In past centuries, constructivist ideas were not widely valued due to the perception that children's play was seen as aimless and of little importance. Jean Piaget did not agree with these traditional views, however. He saw play as an important and necessary part of the student's cognitive development and provided scientific evidence for his views. Today, constructivist theories are influential throughout much of the non-formal learning sector. For more detailed information on the philosophy of the construction of human knowledge, see constructivist epistemology. Formalization of the theory of constructivism is generally attributed to Jean Piaget, who articulated mechanisms by which knowledge is internalized by learners. When individuals assimilate, they incorporate the new experience into an already existing framework without changing that framework. It is important to note that constructivism is not a particular pedagogy.
Social constructivism Social constructivism is a sociological theory of knowledge that applies the general philosophical constructivism into social settings, wherein groups construct knowledge for one another, collaboratively creating a small culture of shared artifacts with shared meanings. When one is immersed within a culture of this sort, one is learning all the time about how to be a part of that culture on many levels. It is emphasised that culture plays a large role in the cognitive development of a person. Its origins are largely attributed to Lev Vygotsky. Social constructivism and social constructionism Social constructivism is closely related to social constructionism in the sense that people are working together to construct artifacts. A very simple example is an object like a cup. For a philosophical account of one possible social constructionist ontology, see the 'Criticism' section of Representative realism. Social constructivism and philosophy See also References
Trivium In medieval universities, the trivium comprised the three subjects that were taught first: grammar, logic and rhetoric. The word is a Latin term meaning "the three ways" or "the three roads" forming the foundation of a medieval liberal arts education. This study was preparatory for the quadrivium, which consists of geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and music. Combining the trivium and quadrivium results in the seven liberal arts of classical study. The trivium is implicit in the De nuptiis of Martianus Capella, although the term was not used until the Carolingian era when it was coined in imitation of the earlier quadrivium. It was later systematized in part by Petrus Ramus as an essential part of Ramism. Description Grammar is the mechanics of a language (always Latin, at the time); logic (or dialectic) is the "mechanics" of thought and analysis; rhetoric is the use of language to instruct and persuade. Another description is: See also References Further reading
Tidying Up the Constructionist Suitcase Constructionism has become a suitcase word. If we are to continue using the word we need to tidy up the suitcase because different sorts of fuzziness have crept in. So, what is in the suitcase, what should stay in and what should be taken out? Or is the word fuzzy by nature? One problem is religious aura or grandiosity. Jean Piaget The reality is that learning theory is complicated, there are many learning theories, no learning theory that can clearly claim general superiority and schools to varying degrees do experiment and trial different approaches, albeit imperfectly. One possible response to this problem is to attempt to define constructionism. Does the OLPC represent such a design? If constructionism is defined simplistically as learning by making and doing then such an approach might seem adequate. Piaget: When he was a small child, he was counting pebbles one day; he lined them up in a row, counted them from left to right, and got ten.
Connectivism Connectivism is a hypothesis of learning which emphasizes the role of social and cultural context. Connectivism is often associated with and proposes a perspective similar to Vygotsky's 'zone of proximal development' (ZPD), an idea later transposed into Engeström's (2001) Activity theory. The relationship between work experience, learning, and knowledge, as expressed in the concept of ‘connectivity, is central to connectivism, motivating the theory's name. It is somewhat similar to Bandura's Social Learning Theory that proposes that people learn through contact. The phrase "a learning theory for the digital age" indicates the emphasis that connectivism gives to technology's effect on how people live, communicate and learn. Nodes and links The central aspect of connectivism is the metaphor of a network with nodes and connections. In this metaphor, a node is anything that can be connected to another node such as an organization, information, data, feelings, and images.
Educational Technology Educational technology is the effective use of technological tools in learning. As a concept, it concerns an array of tools, such as media, machines and networking hardware, as well as considering theoretical perspectives for their effective application. Educational technology includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, animation, and streaming video, and includes technology applications and processes such as audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD-ROM, and computer-based learning, as well as local intranet/extranet and web-based learning. Information and communication systems, whether free-standing or based on either local networks or the Internet in networked learning, underlie many e-learning processes. Educational technology and e-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It can be self-paced, asynchronous learning or may be instructor-led, synchronous learning. Definition Scope Related terms History Cassandra B. Theory
Social network service A social networking service (also social networking site or SNS) is a platform to build social networks or social relations among people who share interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his or her social links, and a variety of additional services. Social network sites are web-based services that allow individuals to create a public profile, to create a list of users with whom to share connections, and view and cross the connections within the system. Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. §History The most popular social networking sites by country Early social networking on the World Wide Web began in the form of generalized online communities such as Theglobe.com (1995), Geocities (1994) and Tripod.com (1995). §Social impact §Features §Emerging trends
Four Arts Origin of the concept Although the individual elements of the concept have very long histories as activities befitting a learned person, the earliest written source putting the four together is Zhang Yanyuan's Fashu Yaolu from the Tang Dynasty. Qín The Guqin Qín 琴 is the musical instrument of the literati, the gǔqín. The gǔqín is a seven-stringed zither that owes its invention to the Chinese society of some 3,000 years ago. Qí Qí 棋 is board game, which is now called wéiqí (圍棋) in Chinese (go in Japan and the West), literally meaning "surrounding game." Wéiqí is a game in which two players alternate placing black and white stones on a playing surface consisting of a grid of 19x19 lines. Unlike in chess, complete dominance is not required for victory — the victor is the player with the higher score. "The most celebrated (though not the oldest) go manual is the Chinese Xuanxuan Qijing. Shū A Chinese calligrapher hard at work Huà Huà 畫 refers to Chinese painting.
Constructionism From OLPC Constructionism is a philosophy of education in which children learn by doing and making in a public, guided, collaborative process including feedback from peers, not just from teachers. They explore and discover instead of being force fed information, or subjected to a regime of social control as in the Prussian system adopted in the US and elsewhere, sometimes called Instructionism. Constructionist guidance has to be informed by a knowledge of what there is to explore and discover, including our ignorance, and of a variety of approaches that can be used for children at different developmental levels with various degrees of preparation. More on this topic can be found by exploring Google using keywords such as "constructionism", "education", "philosophy". See for instance openworldlearning, Seymour Papert's website, , and the wikipedia article on constructionist learning. "I hear and I forget. History and Examples Books and notes +/- Prof. See also
An Introduction to Connective Knowledge ~ Stephen's Web ~ b You are not logged in.   Revised and Updated (minor corrections and typos only) and placed in MS-Word Document form, November 27, 2007. Click here . The version that follows below is the original (uncorrected) version). Yet another article, describing new forms of knowledge as probablistic , has crossed my desk today, and consequently it seems appropriate at this time to type a few words on the nature of distributed knowledge. It should go without saying that these are my own thoughts, and this discussion should not therefore be considered an authoritative reference on the subject. a. You probably grew up learning that there are two major types of knowledge: qualitative and quantitative. Distributed knowledge adds a third major category to this domain, knowledge that could be described as connective. This is more than just the existence of a relation between one entity and another; it implies interaction. Probabilistic knowledge is a type of quantitative knowledge. b. c. d. e. f. g.
Gamestar Mechanic Gary Hamel on Managing Generation Y - the Facebook Generation - Gary Hamel’s Management 2.0 ByGary Hamel The experience of growing up online will profoundly shape the workplace expectations of “Generation F” – the Facebook Generation. At a minimum, they’ll expect the social environment of work to reflect the social context of the Web, rather than as is currently the case, a mid-20th-century Weberian bureaucracy. If your company hopes to attract the most creative and energetic members of Gen F, it will need to understand these Internet-derived expectations, and then reinvent its management practices accordingly. With that in mind, I compiled a list of 12 work-relevant characteristics of online life. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. These features of Web-based life are written into the social DNA of Generation F—and mostly missing from the managerial DNA of the average Fortune 500 company. So, readers, here’s a couple of questions: What are the Web-based social values that you think are most contrary to the managerial DNA one finds inside a typical corporate giant?
INTENSE STUDY TIPS Boy oh boy.... I'm going to attempt to get all of my study tips from the past and present into this post. I've been getting emails/tweets/questions asking for my secrets. Before starting... there are a few "ground rules" I will lay out. I don't have tips on how to be more motivated. Okay...... and off we go! ONE: In class, notetaking My rule of thumb: Paying attention in class is HALF the battle. If a professor uploads slides online before the class, download them and print them out beforehand. For classes in which intensive note taking is required, a laptop may be the best option. I prefer taking notes long hand. Use at least two pen colors. TWO: Homework This is the section where most make the mistake. Here is my game plan for homework: Every Friday, I crack open my binders and go through each syllabus. Starting on Friday morning let's me get a head start on the week. I use my planner to get an overall picture of the week. (this is old, from last year) THREE: The Big Exam (or test)... Agenda
Minnesota New Country School