Human evolution is the evolutionary process leading up to the appearance of modern humans. While it began with the last common ancestor of all life, the topic usually covers only the evolutionary history of primates, in particular the genus Homo, and the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of hominids (or "great apes"). The study of human evolution involves many scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, ethology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryology and genetics. The earliest documented members of the genus Homo are Homo habilis which evolved around 2.3 million years ago; the earliest species for which there is positive evidence of use of stone tools. History of study Before Darwin Darwin The first debates about the nature of human evolution arose between Thomas Huxley and Richard Owen. First fossils A major problem at that time was the lack of fossil intermediaries. The East African fossils
Related: African history
Engineered stem cells seek out and kill HIV in living miceExpanding on previous research providing proof-of-principle that human stem cells can be genetically engineered into HIV-fighting cells, a team of UCLA researchers have now demonstrated that these cells can actually attack HIV-infected cells in a living organism. The study, published April 12 in the journal PLoS Pathogens, demonstrates for the first time that engineering stem cells to form immune cells that target HIV is effective in suppressing the virus in living tissues in an animal model, said lead investigator Scott G. Kitchen, an assistant professor of medicine in the division of hematology and oncology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and a member of the UCLA AIDS Institute. "We believe that this study lays the groundwork for the potential use of this type of an approach in combating HIV infection in infected individuals, in hopes of eradicating the virus from the body," he said.
BBC Nature - Great apes may have 'mid-life crisis', a study suggests19 November 2012Last updated at 20:00 By Jeremy Coles Reporter, BBC Nature Do chimpanzees experience a midlife low in happiness? Chimpanzees and orangutans may experience a "mid-life crisis" like humans, a study suggests. An international team of researchers assessed the well-being and happiness of the great apes. They found well-being was high in youth, fell to a low in midlife and rose again in old age, similar to the "U-shape curve" of happiness in humans. The study brought together experts such as psychologists, primatologists and economists. Results are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "What we are testing is whether the U-shaped curve can describe the association between age and well-being in non-human primates as it does in humans," psychologist and lead author Dr Alexander Weiss of the University of Edinburgh told BBC Nature. Testing times Dr Weiss said that the similarities between humans, chimps and orangutans go beyond genetics and physiology.
Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa?May 2001 Lucy is the common name of an Australopithecus afarensis specimen discovered in 1974 in Ethiopia. Lucy is estimated to have lived 3.2 million years ago. Cleveland Natural History Museum, photo by Andrew. Around 30,000 years ago humans were anatomically and behaviorally similar throughout the world. One of the most hotly debated issues in paleoanthropology (the study of human origins) focuses on the origins of modern humans, Homo sapiens.9,10,3,6,13,15,14 Roughly 100,000 years ago, the Old World was occupied by a morphologically diverse group of hominids. Understanding the issue Multiregional theory: homo erectus left Africa 2 mya to become homo sapiens in different parts of the world. The Multiregional Continuity Model15 contends that after Homo erectus left Africa and dispersed into other portions of the Old World, regional populations slowly evolved into modern humans. To understand this controversy, the anatomical, archaeological, and genetic evidence needs to be evaluated.
Evolution of Language: Chomsky & DennettJenny Cai Professor Grobstein March 14, 2011 Evolution of Language: Chomsky & Dennett Most conscious stories are told through the use of language and have been recorded in text and orally through time. Many have puzzled over the definition of language and more specifically, which species use language. Chomsky’s cross-cultural research revealed that all children advance through different stages of language acquisition at a similar age for the same period of time. To explain the evolution of language, Chomsky applies recursion, the use of algorithm to obtain a calculation or function, to describe the process. Language affects the evolution of humans just as evolution affects language development. References Dennett, Daniel C. K., Richard, Viviane Dèprez, and Hiroko Yamakido.The Evolution of Human Language: Biolinguistic Perspectives. Voyne, Neilson.
100 Time-Saving Search Engines for Serious ScholarsWhile burying yourself in the stacks at the library is one way to get some serious research done, with today’s technology you can do quite a bit of useful searching before you ever set foot inside a library. Undergraduates and grad students alike will appreciate the usefulness of these search engines that allow them to find books, journal articles and even primary source material for whatever kind of research they’re working on and that return only serious, academic results so time isn’t wasted on unprofessional resources. Note: Visit our updated list for the latest in academic search engines. General Start off your research with one of these more general academic search engines. Intute: Use this website’s search tools to find the best and most reliable sites to start your research. Meta Search Want to search it all at once? Dogpile: Search Google, Yahoo, Bing and more at once with this great search engine. Databases and Archives Books and Journals Science Math and Technology Social Science
EvolutionHere then is the beta version of my strip about evolution. This is a chapter of the book Science Stories which will be out from Myriad Editions next spring. I'm sure there'll be mistakes here, so do feel free to point them out, so that I can make the necessary changes. Thank you. Note Oct 2013.
Ihmisen evoluutioIhmisen evoluutiolla tarkoitetaan ihmisen kehittymistä ja eriytymistä omaksi lajikseen ihmisen ja muiden apinoiden tai apinaihmisten yhteisestä kantamuodosta. Ihmisen evoluution tutkimukseen (jota kutsutaan myös paleoantropologiaksi) liittyy useita tieteenaloja, muun muassa fyysinen antropologia ja perinnöllisyystiede. Ihmisellä tarkoitetaan tässä yhteydessä ensisijaisesti ihmisten (Homo) suvun jäseniä, mutta ihmisen evoluution tutkimus käsittelee yleensä myös muita hominideja, kuten suvun Australopithecus apinaihmisiä. Uutta tietoa on saatu viimeisen kahdenkymmenen vuoden aikana fossiililöydösten myötä runsaasti. Ihmisen kehitys pääpiirteittäin[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä] Suuntaa antava sukupuu, johon on sijoitettu suku Kenyanthropus ja Australopithecus siirretty läheiseksi sukulaislinjaksi. Ihmisen kantamuodot ja sukulaiset ovat kehittyneet samanlaisten tekijöiden ohjaamina kuin muutkin eläimet. Ihmisen kehitys[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä] Valikoima kädellisten kalloja
Universal grammarUniversal grammar (UG) is a theory in linguistics, usually credited to Noam Chomsky, proposing that the ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain. The theory suggests that linguistic ability manifests itself without being taught (see the poverty of the stimulus argument), and that there are properties that all natural human languages share. It is a matter of observation and experimentation to determine precisely what abilities are innate and what properties are shared by all languages. Argument The theory of Universal Grammar proposes that if human beings are brought up under normal conditions (not conditions of extreme sensory deprivation), then they will always develop language with a certain property X (e.g., distinguishing nouns from verbs, or distinguishing function words from lexical words). As a result, property X is considered to be a property of universal grammar in the most general sense (here not capitalized). I.e. History Chomsky's theory