Human evolution is the evolutionary process leading up to the appearance of modern humans. While it began with the last common ancestor of all life, the topic usually covers only the evolutionary history of primates, in particular the genus Homo, and the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of hominids (or "great apes"). The study of human evolution involves many scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, ethology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryology and genetics. The earliest documented members of the genus Homo are Homo habilis which evolved around 2.3 million years ago; the earliest species for which there is positive evidence of use of stone tools. History of study Before Darwin Darwin The first debates about the nature of human evolution arose between Thomas Huxley and Richard Owen. First fossils A major problem at that time was the lack of fossil intermediaries. The East African fossils
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BBC Nature - Great apes may have 'mid-life crisis', a study suggests19 November 2012Last updated at 20:00 By Jeremy Coles Reporter, BBC Nature Do chimpanzees experience a midlife low in happiness? Chimpanzees and orangutans may experience a "mid-life crisis" like humans, a study suggests. An international team of researchers assessed the well-being and happiness of the great apes. They found well-being was high in youth, fell to a low in midlife and rose again in old age, similar to the "U-shape curve" of happiness in humans. The study brought together experts such as psychologists, primatologists and economists. Results are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "What we are testing is whether the U-shaped curve can describe the association between age and well-being in non-human primates as it does in humans," psychologist and lead author Dr Alexander Weiss of the University of Edinburgh told BBC Nature. Testing times Dr Weiss said that the similarities between humans, chimps and orangutans go beyond genetics and physiology.
Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa?May 2001 Lucy is the common name of an Australopithecus afarensis specimen discovered in 1974 in Ethiopia. Lucy is estimated to have lived 3.2 million years ago. Cleveland Natural History Museum, photo by Andrew. Around 30,000 years ago humans were anatomically and behaviorally similar throughout the world. One of the most hotly debated issues in paleoanthropology (the study of human origins) focuses on the origins of modern humans, Homo sapiens.9,10,3,6,13,15,14 Roughly 100,000 years ago, the Old World was occupied by a morphologically diverse group of hominids. Understanding the issue Multiregional theory: homo erectus left Africa 2 mya to become homo sapiens in different parts of the world. The Multiregional Continuity Model15 contends that after Homo erectus left Africa and dispersed into other portions of the Old World, regional populations slowly evolved into modern humans. To understand this controversy, the anatomical, archaeological, and genetic evidence needs to be evaluated.
EvolutionHere then is the beta version of my strip about evolution. This is a chapter of the book Science Stories which will be out from Myriad Editions next spring. I'm sure there'll be mistakes here, so do feel free to point them out, so that I can make the necessary changes. Thank you. Note Oct 2013.
Ihmisen evoluutioIhmisen evoluutiolla tarkoitetaan ihmisen kehittymistä ja eriytymistä omaksi lajikseen ihmisen ja muiden apinoiden tai apinaihmisten yhteisestä kantamuodosta. Ihmisen evoluution tutkimukseen (jota kutsutaan myös paleoantropologiaksi) liittyy useita tieteenaloja, muun muassa fyysinen antropologia ja perinnöllisyystiede. Ihmisellä tarkoitetaan tässä yhteydessä ensisijaisesti ihmisten (Homo) suvun jäseniä, mutta ihmisen evoluution tutkimus käsittelee yleensä myös muita hominideja, kuten suvun Australopithecus apinaihmisiä. Uutta tietoa on saatu viimeisen kahdenkymmenen vuoden aikana fossiililöydösten myötä runsaasti. Ihmisen kehitys pääpiirteittäin[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä] Suuntaa antava sukupuu, johon on sijoitettu suku Kenyanthropus ja Australopithecus siirretty läheiseksi sukulaislinjaksi. Ihmisen kantamuodot ja sukulaiset ovat kehittyneet samanlaisten tekijöiden ohjaamina kuin muutkin eläimet. Ihmisen kehitys[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä] Valikoima kädellisten kalloja
Social Skills: Kids vs. ApesBy Ari Daniel Shapiro Posted 10.04.12 NOVA scienceNOW We humans are exceptionally good at manipulating our environment, but what makes us so successful compared with other primates? Our intelligence? Our opposable thumbs? A clever experiment conducted in Africa and Europe suggests another answer: our social skills. Listen to the story. To see what sets humans apart, anthropologist Victoria Wobber challenges young apes and children to do the same tasks. On a warm afternoon in Cambridge, Massachusetts, a few dozen kids and adults have found refuge on a shaded playground. "There are a number of kids playing on slides," she says, watching all the activity. The scene is so familiar that it's hardly remarkable. "Look at the boy using a shovel to get the sand into that container," she says. Anthropologist Victoria Wobber, at a playground near her office at Harvard University. An elegant experiment Wobber came up with a way to unravel these questions as part of her Ph.D. work at Harvard University.
Africa Map / Map of Africa - Facts, Geography, History of Africaprint this map >>> LARGER (printable) AFRICA MAP As for Africa, scientists have formerly concluded that it is the birthplace of mankind, as large numbers of human-like fossils (discovered no where else) were found on the continent, some dating back 3.5 million years. About 1.75 million years ago, early man spread throughout parts of Africa. They became aggressive hunters, lived in caves and used fire and their ability to create stone tools just to survive. The Neanderthals arose some 200,000 years ago and inhabited regions in northern Africa and across parts of southern Europe. One of the most important developments of primitive man was the creation of stone tools. In 3200 BC the Egyptian culture emerged along the lower reaches of the Nile River; it was among the earliest civilizations and their tools and weapons were made of bronze. Egyptians also developed mathematics, an innovative system of medicine, irrigation and agricultural production techniques, writing and the first ships.
Pre-colonial African HistoryThese few notes aim to provide some historical background to better understand the events that have shaped the people I have met in the countries I visited in Africa. A) Almohads In 1121, Muhammad ibn Tumart, an Arab reformer was proclaimed Al Mahdi ("The Rightly Guided") in Morocco by a large following of disciples calling themselves "al-muwahhid" (those who proclaim the unity of God, hence the name Almohads). His successor the Berber Abd al-Mumin, conquered Morocco (1140-1147) and other parts of North Africa putting an end to the Almoravids. A) Almoravids Around 1050, a Muslim religious military brotherhood known as the hermits (Arabic al-murabit, hence the name Almoravids) began its expansion in northwestern Africa. A) Ashanti Empire The Ashanti people occupied what is now southern Ghana in the 18th and 19th centuries. D) Dahomey Kingdom D) Donatists F) Fulani Theocracy The Fulani, a nomadic, pastoralist people expanded eastward from Senegal in the 14th century. G) Ghana Empire T) Tuareg
African History - Essays, Notes & PapersStudyMode.com provides assistance to writers struggling with difficult essay topics, like African history. There are a wide variety of free research papers and free term papers available on StudyMode.com to help you complete your own assignment. Browse the list of college essay categories, or use the search engine to find a specific research paper related to African history. Documents 1 - 30 of 828 Go to Page