Platonic Forms This is a concise introduction to Plato’s use of the concept of “Form,” which many readers initially find to be puzzling, or even an egregious affront to common sense. The following is not intended to defend Plato’s theory as an adequate response to the problems it was designed to address. It is intended only to show that the theory is an intelligible and reasonable response to those problems. Plato assumes, following Parmenides, that what is real may be thought and what is thought may be said. In other words, reality may be known through rational inquiry or thinking and the resultant thoughts may be communicated propositionally. But how do linguistically expressed judgments convey truths about non-linguistic realities? Forms as class concepts. Much can be said in favor of this way of thinking. Forms as standards. Our knowledge of Forms. Reality.
Fertile Crescent The Fertile Crescent at maximum defined extent, with the names of ancient civilizations found there. The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid Western Asia, and the Nile Valley and Nile Delta of northeast Africa. The term was popularized by University of Chicago archaeologist James Henry Breasted. In current usage, all definitions of the Fertile Crescent include Mesopotamia, the land in and around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The region is often called the cradle of civilization; it saw the development of many of the earliest human civilizations. Terminology The term "Fertile Crescent" was popularized by University of Chicago archaeologist James Henry Breasted, beginning with his high school textbooks Outlines of European History in 1914 and Ancient Times, A History of the Early World in 1916. Breasted's 1916 textbook description of the Fertile Crescent: Languages History
Plato Quotes Poetry is nearer to vital truth than history. The direction in which education starts a man will determine his future life. The beginning is the most important part of the work. The more the pleasures of the body fade away, the greater to me is the pleasure and charm of conversation. Democracy is a charming form of government, full of variety and disorder, and dispensing a sort of equality to equals and unequal alike. Many men are loved by their enemies, and hated by their friends, and are the friends of their enemies, and the enemies of their friends. If a man can be properly said to love something, it must be clear that he feels affection for it as a whole, and does not love part of it to the exclusion of the rest. Was not this ... what we spoke of as the great advantage of wisdom -- to know what is known and what is unknown to us? The eyes ... are the windows of the soul. No evil can happen to a good man, neither in life nor after death. God is not the author of all things, but of good only.
Apology (Plato) Except for two brief exchanges with Meletus (at 24d-25d and 26b-27d), where the monologue becomes a dialogue, the text is written in the first person from Socrates' point of view, as though it were Socrates' actual speech at the trial. During the course of the speech, Socrates twice mentions Plato as being present (at 34a and 38b). There is, however, no real way of knowing how closely Socrates' words in the Apology match those of Socrates at the actual trial, even if it was Plato's intention to be accurate in this respect. One contemporary criticism of Plato's Apology is perhaps implied by the opening paragraphs of Xenophon's Apology, assuming that the former antedated the latter; Xenophon remarks that previous writers had failed to make clear the reason for Socrates' boastful talk (megalēgoria) in the face of the death penalty. Xenophon's account disagrees in some other respects with the details of Plato's Apology, but he nowhere explicitly claims it to be inaccurate.
The Imaginary (Sartre) The Imaginary: A Phenomenological Psychology of the Imagination (French: L'Imaginaire) is a 1940 book by Jean-Paul Sartre that propounds his concept of the imagination and discusses what the existence of imagination shows about the nature of human consciousness. The Psychology of the Imagination (alternate title of The Imaginary) There are two important points Sartre stresses in the book. First, while some believe imagining to be like an internal perception, Sartre argues that imagination is nothing like perception. Secondly, throughout the book Sartre offers arguments against conceiving images as something inside a spatial consciousness. Sartre says that what is required for the imaginary process to occur is an analogon—that is, an equivalent of perception. Ultimately, Sartre argues that because we can imagine, we are ontologically free. The Imaginary Google Book search with access to book preview.
Creon In Sophocles Oedipus the King In Oedipus the King, Creon is a brother of queen Jocasta, the wife of King Laius as well as Oedipus. Laius, a previous king of Thebes, had given the rule to Creon while he went to consult the oracle at Delphi. Antigone In Antigone, Creon is the ruler of Thebes. The Thebans won the war, but both sons of Oedipus were killed, leaving Creon as ruler once more, serving as regent for Laodamas, the son of Eteocles. Character traits Creon is pitted against Antigone who holds up the will of the gods and the honor of her family above all else, and thus he appears to be against these values. Discrepancies The Creon of Oedipus the King is in some ways different and in some ways similar to the Creon of Antigone. Some explanation for these discrepancies in personality may be drawn from his characterization in the third of the Oedipus plays by Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus. Other representations References Jump up ^ MacKay, L.A.
Outline of Argument from Recollection The Argument from Recollection: Phaedo 72e-77a 1. If a person is reminded of anything, he must first know that thing at one time or another. (73c 1-3) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Therefore, 12. Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese attempting to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias. The Peloponnesian War reshaped the ancient Greek world. Greek warfare, meanwhile, originally a limited and formalized form of conflict, was transformed into an all-out struggle between city-states, complete with atrocities on a large scale. Prelude As the preeminent Athenian historian, Thucydides, wrote in his influential History of the Peloponnesian War, "The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon, made war inevitable Peace of Nicias
Science - Quantum Physics of Consciousness and Physical Reality by StarStuffs We may therefore regard matter as being constituted by the regions of space in which the field is extremely intense...There is no place in this new kind of physics for the field and matter, for the field is the only reality." Albert Einstein, with his general theory of relativity, opened the doors of science along with the mystical realities. Einstein theorized that space and time are intertwined and that matter is inseparable from an ever-present quantum energy field and this is the sole reality underlying all appearances. This theory challenged the basic assumptions about the universe and what it contained. Physicists found that the most basic atomic particles in the cosmos comprise the very fabric of the material universe. Physicist David Bohm, in his plasma experiments, at the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, Bohm found that individual electrons act as part of an interconnected whole. "A principle related to nonlocality is called Bell's Theorem. Superstring Theory: Unification Theory:
Civilization Ancient Egypt is a canonical example of an early culture considered a civilization. Civilization or civilisation (in British English) generally refers to state polities which combine these basic institutions, having one or more of each: a ceremonial centre (a formal gathering place for social and cultural activities), a system of writing, and a city. The term is used to contrast with other types of communities including hunter-gatherers, nomadic pastoralists and tribal villages. Civilizations have more densely populated settlements divided into social classes with a ruling elite and subordinate urban and rural populations, which, by the division of labour, engage in intensive agriculture, mining, small-scale manufacture and trade. Civilization concentrates power, extending human control over both nature, and over other human beings. Towards the end of the Neolithic period, various Bronze Age civilizations began to rise in various "cradles" from around 3300 BCE. Characteristics
Quantum nonlocality Quantum nonlocality is the phenomenon by which the measurements made at a microscopic level necessarily refute one or more notions (often referred to as local realism) that are regarded as intuitively true in classical mechanics. Rigorously, quantum nonlocality refers to quantum mechanical predictions of many-system measurement correlations that cannot be simulated by any local hidden variable theory. Many entangled quantum states produce such correlations when measured, as demonstrated by Bell's theorem. Experiments have generally favoured quantum mechanics as a description of nature, over local hidden variable theories. Any physical theory that supersedes or replaces quantum theory must make similar experimental predictions and must therefore also be nonlocal in this sense; quantum nonlocality is a property of the universe that is independent of our description of nature. Example Imagine two experimentalists, Alice and Bob, situated in separate laboratories. and P(b0|A1) = or
The Republic (Plato) Three interpretations of the Republic are presented; they are not exhaustive in their treatments of the work, but are examples of contemporary interpretation. In his A History of Western Philosophy (1945), Bertrand Russell identifies three parts to the Republic: Books I–V: the eutopia portraying the ideal community and the education of the Guardians, parting from attempting to define justice;Books VI–VII: define “philosopher”, since philosophers are the ideal rulers of such a community;Books VIII–X: discuss the pros and cons of various practical forms of government. Francis Cornford, Kurt Hildebrandt (de), and Eric Voegelin contributed to an establishment of sub-divisions marked with special formulae in Greek: Prologue I.1. 327a—328b. I.2—I.5. 328b—331d. I.6—1.9. 331e—336a. I.10—1.24. 336b—354c. Introduction II.1—II.10. 357a—369b. Part I: Genesis and Order of the Polis II.11—II.16. 369b—376e. II.16—III.18. 376e—412b. III.19—IV.5. 412b—427c. IV.6—IV.19. 427c—445e. V.1—V.16. 449a—471c. P.